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Tuberculosis: An Overview Of Trends And Treatment. Laura

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Tuberculosis: An Overview of Trends and Treatment
Laura K. Stevens
Columbia Basin College

Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by infection with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. The CDC estimates that one third of the global population was infected with TB in 2015 (as cited in Hebert, 2016). That figures varies greatly by country, with the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) estimating a prevalence of 4.7% for US residents. (Castro et al., 2015) There was further variation within the US population in regards to age, sex, race/ethnicity, and whether or not the individual had been born in the US. The study excluded those under 6 years of age, serving in the armed forces, or
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A sputum exam is indicated in those who have had positive TST/IGRA, any respiratory symptoms (cough, shortness of breath), or a chest x-ray with abnormal findings. (Hebert, 2016)
Epidemiology
Incidence varies greatly by country, with the World Health Organization (WHO) estimating that the 2013 global incidence of active TB infection annually at 1,260 cases per million (as cited in Castro et al, 2015) with an incidence of 3,000 or more cases per million in certain countries in Sub-Saharan and Western Africa (Todd, 2007) to 30 per million in the United States (Castro et al, 2015), a further 48% decline from the U.S. 2000 rate of 58 cases per million. (Diffender et al, 2016)
Within the US population the rates for latent disease can be further broken down by age, sex, race/ethnicity, education level, and foreign v. US-born. These differences were dramatic, ranging from 0.3% for U.S. born 6-14-year-olds to 32.3% of individuals aged 65 or older who were born outside of the U.S. (Diffender et al, 2016) There was not data for regional variation across the U.S.

Medical and Surgical Treatment and Nursing Care While complicated in practice, the theory portion of tuberculosis management is simple; treat individuals with either active TB or latent TB that is likely to progress to active disease with the appropriate antibiotic regimen (Sloan & Lewis, 2015). Certain countries with a high
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