Types Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma ( Ah, The Primary Malignancy Of The Liver

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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, the primary malignancy of the liver) is now the third most common cancer in the world affecting more than half a million people. The incidence of liver cancer varies greatly by race and ethnicity; and about 3 times more common in men than women [6]. The most common type of HCC - caused by Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) are most prevalent in Asia and Africa, as the presence of virus predisposes people to liver disease and subsequently HCC [7]. In such high prevalence areas of the world, HBV infection is often acquired at birth or in early childhood. In the US, Asian American, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders (AANHPI) account for more than 50% of people infected with HBV, although many of them are…show more content…
Detection of Hepatitis C virus is typically done using Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to detect hepatitis C antibody; or Hepatitis C RNA assays are used to determine the viral load. Genetic testing is then done to check for the type of Hep C infection, which can be of six types (genotypes 1 through 6). In the US, baby boomers (born 1945-1965) are encouraged to get tested, as they may be treated with antiviral drugs to prevent progression to cancer [12]. Vaccine is available to protect against HBV infection, but not for HCV. Even though vaccines exist, it can only protect against infections if they are administered before the person is exposed to the cancer-promoting virus [13]. Recent advances in screening have helped in early detection of cirrhosis. In recent times, quantitative assays for HBsAg and HBeAg are also being used in identifying patients likely to respond to anti-HBV treatments, although more work is needed to standardize these new assays [14]. When early detection is successful, treatments include surgery to remove part of the liver (partial hepatectomy) or liver transplant [6]. Other treatments include cryosurgery and radiation therapy for cases where cancer has not metastasized. For patients where cancer has metastasized, targeted therapy, chemotherapy or clinical

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