Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide and the second cause of cancer-related mortality in eastern and western countries . Each year, >700,000 patients diagnosed as HCC and morbidity rates of HCC continue to increase, possibly due to deterioration of environment, unhealthy dietary habits and other related factors . Reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs, also known as RECK, is a human gene, thought to be a metastasis suppressor against activated ras oncogenes . It is a promising goal for controlling tumor invasion and angiogenesis. Although RECK mRNA is expressed in most of normal human tissues and untransformed cells, the protein level is low or …show more content…
Sampling: Under complete aseptic conditions, 8 ml of venous blood were collected .Each blood sample was divided and divided as follows: Tube A :4 ml were collected in plain tube, left to clot at 37ºC ,then centrifuged ,clear sera were separated and divided into 3 aliquots; the first one was used to determine liver function tests(total &direct bilirubin, AST, ALT, GGT,ALP, total protein and albumin) by using AU640 autoanalyzer. The second was used for measurement of alpha feto- protein by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using Human AFP ELISA kits supplied by Glory Science(Immunospec Corporation, 7018 Owensmouth Ave. Suite 103 Canoga Park, CA, 91303) and the third one used for detection of hepatitis markers antibodies (HBsAg, and HCV antibody) by direct sandwich assay using the ELISA Kit supplied by Adltis, Germany. The specimens were kept frozen at -20 ˚C until the time of assay, Tube B: 2 ml were collected in a sterile sodium citrate vacutainer tubes for immediate assay of prothrombin time, concentration and INR and Tube C: 2ml were collected in sterile vacutainer tubes containing EDTA for DNA extraction. Evaluation of RECK gene polymorphisms DNA analysis: Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR-RFLP method was used to
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The MD Anderson Liver Tumor biospecimen resource has been invaluable for a large number of studies or clinical development. The sixth and subsequent editions of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging of hepatocellular cancer, which was developed by an international consortium led by Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, MD, Professor of Surgery at MD Anderson and co-leader on project 2 of the SPORE, was based upon pathologic review of resected specimens in the Liver Tumor Bank (Vauthey JN J Clin Oncol 2002 20:1527-36). In addition, investigators at MD Anderson examined tissues in the Liver Tumor Bank to elucidate the prognostic significance of the ribonucleoprotein Human Antigen R (HuR) showing that patients with high HuR tumor expression had
Mr. Henderson is a very pleasant 71-year-old gentleman with hepatitis C who presents to oncology clinic for evaluation and treatment of locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. In 10/2016, the patient underwent a screening ultrasound due to having hepatitis C. The ultrasound revealed a right liver mass. In 11/2016, he subsequently, underwent a CT scan which revealed a 5.1 cm x 4.2 cm left liver mass and a 6 mm right middle lobe density. In 12/2016, the patient underwent a CT-guided biopsy of the liver mass which revealed a moderately differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. In 02/2017, the patient underwent an MRI of the abdomen which revealed a 5.2 x 5.4 cm left hepatic lobe mass. The main portal vein is widely patent. There was no
There are up to more than a billion diseases in the world, and we still have plenty more to discover, and one disease that can be deadly is Chronic Liver Disease. Chronic Liver Disease is a disease that destroys liver cells, and replaces them with “Scare Tissue”, which is a tissue that connects to the organ and creates a scar. In addition, Chronic Liver Disease has multiple stages, the final stage of Chronic Liver Disease is “Cirrhosis” moreover, cirrhosis damages and destroys
On comparison between initial and repeated the liver function tests and the urea and electrolytes tests, the results are still deranged. The results for AST and ALT remained high at 1110 U/L and 2419 U/L. An increase in AST and ALT results can be due to a number of conditions, including fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease and trace metal disorders such as Wilson’s disease which can progress into acute liver failure. When looking at the elevated ratio of AST to ALT in these conditions it is possible to determine the origin and the extent of the damage depending on the raised level of each liver enzyme. In alcoholic liver disease, the AST activity is predominantly raised to a higher level than the ALT to a ratio of 2:1. In contrast, in the case of fatty liver disorders the enzyme activity ratio would be 2.2, given with a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 86%
In several clinical cohorts, it has been shown that chronic hepatitis C is a main leading cause of cirrhosis and HCC, which is the third cause of cancer deaths worldwide (EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines, 2011).
Liver cancer is in the top ten for most alarming cancers. It is placed in the abdominal cavity. Also it is placed to the right of the stomach under the diaphragm. A average adult liver receives about two quarts of blood every minute and weighs around three pounds. The biggest glandular organ in the body is the liver and it keeps damaging substances and toxins out of the body. The liver is an critical organ in our body because it stocks vitamins, iron, and sugar glucose. It produces bile which is a substance to digest fats and it destroys old RBC. Also the liver detoxifies the blood to rid it of damaging substances such as drugs and alcohol and breaks down hemoglobin as well as insulin and other hormones. Lastly the liver alters ammonia to urea,
Liver cancer is an abnormal growth of cells (tumor) in the liver that is cancerous (malignant). The liver is located on the upper right side of the abdomen, just below the ribs. It is the largest organ in the body. The liver:
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, the primary malignancy of the liver) is now the third most common cancer in the world affecting more than half a million people. The incidence of liver cancer varies greatly by race and ethnicity; and about 3 times more common in men than women . The most common type of HCC - caused by Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) are most prevalent in Asia and Africa, as the presence of virus predisposes people to liver disease and subsequently HCC . In such high prevalence areas of the world, HBV infection is often acquired at birth or in early childhood. In the US, Asian American, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders (AANHPI) account for more than 50% of people infected with HBV, although many of them are
Diagnose of HA usually begins with a review of the medical history and symptoms. The physical exam, provides information regarding abdominal pain, which could indicate an enlarged liver or spleen, as well as skin observation to establish a presence of yellow color. Physician can also order diagnostic blood tests for bilirubin, to measure the level of red blood cells that has broken down in the liver, hemoglobin test to measure the amount of red blood cells, liver function test, and reticulocyte count test, to measure the amount of produced red blood
Initial liver biopsy is recommended for assessment of the inflammatory activity and the severity of fibrosis, which is useful for making therapeutic decision. The work-up shows that interface and zone 1 lobular hepatitis is the hallmark with the characteristic lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, typically prominent portal and periportal (in case of bridging necrosis or cirrhosis) inflammation which generally spares the bile ducts, and acinar transformation of hepatocytes (rosettes formation). Plasma cells may not be dominant but prominent inflammatory cells only at the interface. The non-specificity of histological findings to autoimmune hepatitis should always be remembered, and the absence of plasma cells does not preclude the diagnosis. Meanwhile,
This report will discuss how liver cancer affects the liver. I will discuss the how liver cancer affects the normal operation of the liver, what causes liver cancer, how this cancer can be detected and how this cancer can be treated. I will conclude with a discussion of how common liver cancer is.
The liver is a crucial part of our digestive system. It is loved in the epigastric and right hypochondriac regions of the abdomen. A few of the many functions are storing glycogen and processing proteins from amino acids. Perhaps the most important function to digestion is that the liver secretes bile, a substance required to digest fats. There are many diseases that can affect this organ and the digestive system including Cirrhosis.
The levels of other liver enzymes can also increase as the immune system damages hepatocytes. As a result, clinicians measure levels of several enzymes in a series of ‘liver function tests’. In many cases, patients do not develop symptoms of hepatitis despite showing markedly elevated liver enzymes. There can be a number of causes of elevated liver enzymes, such as herbal remedies, alcohol or other drugs, but they are usually a good surrogate for active liver disease (Ryder and Beckingham, 2001).
It is estimated to be responsible for nearly 746,000 deaths in 2012. In the United States the American Cancer Society’s estimates for primary liver cancer is about 39,230 new cases (28,410 in men and 10,820 in women) will be diagnosed and about 27,170 people (18,280 men and 8,890 women) will die of these cancers. In Oregon the data of liver cancer is 12.82 compared to the United States death rate of liver cancer is about 10.43. Linn county is ranked 18 and the death rate is 11.74. Liver cancer can be very deadly and it doesn't have to necessarily start at the liver.
Over time, many people have conducted extensive research and spent strenuous hours analyzing the infamous disease known as Hepatitis A. This had to lead to presume many different conclusions and theories about the facts that were deduced from their arduous research. The various researchers who conducted the experiments are old, however, they bore fruitful results and were not in vain. This can be witnessed through the numerous treatments for hepatitis. Hepatitis continues to be a mild problem today, however not nearly as it was before advances in technology and the medical field. These advances allowed adequate research to come to fruition, therefore, hepatitis has receded into the lesser diseases. However, it still poses a threat today despite modern advancements.