Using Copyrighted Materials Will Not Constitute An Act Of Infringement

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materials in my research discussion I make sure to properly cite everything in order to avoid copyright infringement. Also, I use information that is in the public domain and is regarded as public knowledge such as definitions of terms being studied. According to Macrina (2014), any information which is in the public domain cannot be copyrighted such as calendars or commonly known definitions. If I were to distribute a photocopy of a journal article for discussion at a lab meeting, it would not be copyright infringement. This act would not violate any copyrights, because I am not making a profit off the information. Macrina (2014) states, “Fair use of copyrighted materials will not constitute an act of infringement.” The textbook states…show more content…
For a copyright, an author must distinguish the requirement of originality, which means, “The work owes its origin to the author, is independently created and not copied from other works.” (Macrina, 2014 p.299). in regards to a patent, the inventor must distinguish the requirement of novelty. Novelty is defined as the invention must not have previously existed in any way or have been used by other individuals. For an inventor to prove novelty they must also prove the invention has not been described in a publication worldwide (Macrina, 2014 p.299). Obviously, the requirement of originality is much easier to prove than the novelty of an invention, which results in copyright infringement being difficult to prove since the individual must have evidence of not only similarity but verbatim copying of the original work. When filing to have a patent on an invention or subject matter, the main criteria are, “It must be useful, new or novel, nonobvious and reduced to practice.” (Macrina, 2014 p.306). According to The Guardian article, there are both pros and cons for allowing patents for human genetic materials. The pros for making human genetic materials patentable are that it would increase the incentive for companies to pursue genetic research. In the article, Dr Gareth Williams stated, “By declaring isolated forms of human DNA patent ineligible, it robs genome research companies of a huge commercial incentive to
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