Vascular Lymphatic System/Atherosclerosis
Bryant & Stratton College
AHLT120: Anatomy and Physiology-1
Dr. Pamela K. Hannaman, MS, ND, CPC, CMRS, CCMA
November 18, 2015
Narrowing and hardening of the artery walls causing buildup of fatty tissues (plaque), cholesterol and other substances, which may restrict blood flow is referred to as atherosclerosis. Having restriction of blood flow develops damage to a patients’ organs and also increases the risk of heart attacks, blood clots, and strokes overtime (WebMD, 2015). It is said to be the most common form of arteriosclerosis that forms small patches and arterial spasms. The plaque also known as atheroma, builds up and may cause the blood clots to burst. Atherosclerosis is considered to be a heart condition, but may also affect arteries in any part of the body and could be prevented and treated (Mayo Clinic, 2015). The arteries in the body are blood vessels that transport blood from the heart and through the body. Endothelium, which is a thin layer of cells that lines the arteries to help keep the inside of the arteries smooth and toned allowing normal blood flow. The disruption that leads to atherosclerosis begins when an individual smokes, and has either high blood pressure or high cholesterol; in which begins to form atheroma. When the endothelium is damaged it causes it to become invasive allowing bad cholesterol or LDL to enter the artery walls. In return, causing the white blood
Many of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease cause problems because they lead to atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the narrowing and thickening of arteries and develops for years without causing symptoms. It can happen in any part of the body. Around the heart, it is known as coronary artery disease, in the legs it is known as peripheral arterial disease. The narrowing and thickening of the arteries is due to the deposition of fatty material, cholesterol and other substances in the walls of blood vessels. The deposits are known as plaques. The rupture of a plaque can lead to stroke or a heart attack. (World Heart Federation).
Atherosclerosis is the process in which substances known as plaques, which are made up of cholesterol and platelets, adhere to tears in the walls of arteries. Over time these plaques build up to the point where they occlude blood flow in the arteries. When this happens in the coronary arteries, either directly, as the result of buildup in the arteries themselves, indirectly in the form a clot from another part of the body breaking loose and becoming lodged in the coronary arteries, the usual result is a heart attack.3
The cardiovascular disease defines conditions that affect the heart or blood vessels. Thrombosis, which emanates from blood clots, reduced blood flow to the heart, brain and the rest of the body. When fatty acids deposit in the artery, it hardens and narrows. These issues lead to stroke, coronary heart disease, aortic disease and peripheral arterial disease. Coronary heart disease occurs due to a reduced or blocked flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart. It is a result of accumulated fats in the coronary arteries. Coronary arteries are a set of blood vessels that take blood to the heart. When they become narrow, the heart gets less of a supply of blood and oxygen causing chest pains, called angina or a heart attack, explains VanMeter &
Atherosclerosis is one of a group of health problems that define coronary artery disease, oftentimes referred to as heart disease. Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of heart disease in the United States. The following is the definition provided by the American Heart Association:
Nevertheless, there is an understandable and noticeable link between circulatory related diseases and lifestyle diseases, such as Coronary Heart Disease. Coronary heart disease can occur when fatty acids, such as cholesterol in an inadequate diet, build up in the walls of the coronary artery. These fatty deposits collect minerals and harden to become a plaque. Eventually, this plaque grows and can swells up, forming an aneurism. In some cases, this aneurism may burst leading to instant death. As it continues to grow and swell up, it finally blocks the artery completely and forms blood clots. This is known as coronary thrombosis. A myocardial infarction, or in other words as heart attack, occurs when no oxygen is able to reach the coronary artery and thus it is unable to fulfil its role in providing the heart muscle with a sufficient supply of blood. Heart attacks are very common in the society nowadays, especially occurring in smokers or obesity related diseases (Millar, June 2014)
Atherosclerosis is associated with the major killer ailments in America, which include strokes, heart attacks, as well as peripheral vascular disease. The condition arises when there are a narrowing and hardening of the arteries. This is usually a gradual process, and it slowly blocks the arteries. When this happens, it will impede smooth blood flow. It is estimated that at least one million Americans lost their lives to a condition associated with atherosclerosis for the past few years.
LDL carries plaque which attaches to the walls of arteries and beings to build up. The plaque is a combination of cholesterol, fat, calcium and other substances. As it builds up over time, it hardens and the arteries become narrow, a condition called atherosclerosis. The blood cannot flow as freely and oxygen cannot get throughout the body as it should. If the plaque ruptures or breaks open, a blood clot can form. If the clot becomes large enough, blood flow is impaired or blocked completely. You may experience extreme pressure or pain in the chest called angina or possible pain in the shoulders, jaw, arms, back, or the discomfort associated with indigestion. This is a heart attack. Heart damage or even death may result if blood flow is not quickly restored. However, arteries leading to other parts of the body can have plaque buildup resulting in strokes, carotid artery disease, and peripheral artery disease. On the other hand, if the HDL is higher, the risk for heart disease is lower.
Coronary illness is the development of plaque (fat store on the inward dividers of the veins) in the coronary conduits that supply O2 rich blood to the heart muscle, the development of plaque is called atherosclerosis. After some time passes plaques may solidify therefore limiting blood stream or totally obstructing the corridor. The development of plaque is straightforwardly identified with a people way of life, normal danger elements incorporate stoutness, high blood cholesterol and diabetes. At the point when the endothelium is harmed by blood stream, the cholesterol and fats in the blood get stuck shaping plaques. This outcomes in hypertension due the heart endeavoring to supply obliged levels of blood to the body. In the event that the blood stream to the heart muscles is limited or blocked it may
To begin with, cells create atherosclerotic deposits, and these deposits arise on vessel walls. This is formed when LDL deposits tend to become stuck in the matrix, and they undergo oxidation and glycation. Macrophages then feast on LDL’s, becoming fueled with fatty droplets. If there is an inflammatory disease, this can cause more growth of plaque, and a fibrous cap or the lipid core is established. Then, foam cells weaken the caps by digesting matrix molecules, which then leads to the damage of smooth muscle, resulting in the inability to repair the cap. If a clot is big enough, the flow of blood will be interrupted resulting
Sometimes atherosclerosis occurs in the carotid arteries, especially at the bifurcation or the point where the common carotid divides into the internal and external carotids. Atherosclerosis means that a potentially dangerous plaque has formed on the artery wall. Plaque is a sticky material made of fat and calcium which hardens the arteries and can block the flow of blood. This narrowing is sometimes called a carotid artery stenosis, meaning that the carotid artery has narrowed significantly.
Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of coronary heart disease which can affect any artery in the body. Atherosclerosis is essentially the narrowing of arteries due to excessive build up of cholesterol-rich lipids known as plaque (Insull 2009). Once the arteries become narrow, the flow of blood will be constricted, resulting in the reduction of the nutrients and oxygen that are able to reach the heart. As a consequence, the heart becomes increasingly hypoxic resulting in ineffective contractions. The aftermath of narrow arteries often poses serious consequences as it has a high probability of causing heart attack, angina, or even stroke (Marieb & Hoehn 2010; Insull 2009). Despite the fact that arteries will harden naturally as people age, the rate of plaque development is determined by the number of risk factors (Insull 2009). This essay will discuss and review the procedure in which the risk factors: hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, and smoking took to assist in the development of atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which fatty materials and plaque buildup on the inner lining of arteries. Arteries are blood vessels which carry rich blood to the heart and throughout the body. They’re lined by the endothelium, a thin layer of cells. The endothelium keeps blood flowing by keeping the inside of arteries smooth. However, when Atherosclerosis starts due to high blood pressure, smoking, or high cholesterol, it damages the endothelium. Atherosclerosis tends to happen throughout the body and arises when people grow older. This disease is mainly due to the deposition of fatty materials i.e., cholesterol, calcium and other substances found in the blood. The buildup of fat then hardens causing narrowing of the arteries. This
Forming plaque reduces the elasticity of the arteries which causes stiffness, breakage of the lining and blockages. This can lead to high blood pressure, heart attacks, stroke and death.
Excess cholesterol can form plaque between layers of artery walls, making it harder for your heart to circulate blood. Plaque can break open and cause blood clots. If a clot blocks an artery that feeds the brain, it causes a stroke. If it blocks an artery that feeds the heart, it causes a heart attack. View an animation of cholesterol.