What Caused The 1992-1996 Afghan Civil War : Will History Repeat Itself?
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What caused the 1992-1996 Afghan Civil War: will history repeat itself?
Khushal H. Safi
February 4, 2015 I. Introduction Many arguments are made for why war occurs and how to achieve peace. While the analysis helps humanity understand why conflict occurs, it fails to prevent the march toward war. This paper explores Kenneth Waltz’s three levels, or “images’ of conflict. Waltz, the founder of neorealism, established the foundation for one of the two currently accepted international relations schools, the other Neoliberalism. This essay compares Waltz’s theory to other contemporary thinkers, then applies it to the 1992-1996 Afghan Civil War. The paper concludes by noticing the similarities events during the…show more content… Finally, Waltz depicts the international-system level of international institutions, principles, and systems as perpetually anarchic, or without a central enforcement mechanism (Waltz, 1988, pg. 618). Waltz contends multilateralism is a root of conflict because international systems are comprised of states at their core level, thus the response to wayward actors depends upon another state’s desire/need to confront the actor.
A. Individual-Level Analysis Waltz’s individual-psychological image looks at reasons why humans are drawn to conflict. At the most rudimentary level, Waltz assessed war is personally advantageous. Hans Morgenthau, the father of Political Realism (a principle which Waltz’s Neorealism theory is based), naturally agrees with Waltz’s individual image. Morgenthau’s “Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace” postulates world leaders seek power to “control the minds and actions of other men” (Morgenthau, 2006, pg. 30). The drive to achieve political power is not always based in war. However, it is always rooted in conflict because power is achieved at the expense of another.
In the article “Motivations for Conflict: Groups and Individuals,” Stewart and Brown also agree with Waltz. Their “private motivation hypothesis” argues leader and fighters seek profit through conflict (Stewart & Brown, 2007, pg. 224). Typically, marginalized and unemployed youth seek out a leader who assist them escape their meager existence.