Innovation and Evolution: Prussian Military Reforms of the 19th Century The concept of war as a static and unchanging occurrence is an outdated and dangerous miscalculation. More accurately, war is a fluidic, evolving and shifting phenomenon constantly reinventing itself, rendering stagnant, inflexible principles potentially disastrous. Consequently, as students of war and future players in this transforming theatre, the study of eras of significant development is an extremely relevant pursuit. Recognizing the need for adaptation and the creation of doctrine is now a prerequisite for any effective modern commander. War is unpredictable in nature and particularly so in current theatres of operation, in which change is rapid
In “War is a Racket” General Butler laments the use of propaganda in World War 1, and he notes
Over the course of history, the strategic environment has changed rapidly and is now more complex than ever before – it is currently characterized by unpredictability and disorder, and may yet manifest itself in the collapse of nuclear armed nations, destabilizing conflict in geo-politically vital regions, and humanitarian crises. A
Dating to the beginning of civilization, war continues to be a repeating occurrence in the world whether it be with oneself, society, or the outside influences in the world. In terms of war between countries, there is the growing controversy over its utilization and purpose when a country is predisposed
Outline Introduction Set-up - Warfare is constantly changing, for the tools of war are always evolving, as do the societies that wage war. Between 1400 and 1918, western warfare went through four periods that saw such profound change that it can fairly be said that a "military revolution" occurred. According to historians MacGregor Knox and Williamson Murray, military revolutions "fundamentally change the framework of war" and "recast society and the state as well as military organizations." While all of the military revolutions studied in H100 were important in the evolution of warfare, one clearly stimulated greater change than the others.
In Out of the Mountains, David Kilcullen (2013) identifies and analyzes four of the variables which he believes will shape the character of warfare and conflict in the future. His study of these trends structure a system of security studies that incorporate non-state and unknown actors, as well as unorganized groups and cultural influences into conflict examination. It also allows for the consideration of economic, historical, and developing information while studying warfare. Kilcullen (2013) coins this system of analysis as his “Theory of Competitive Control.” This theory moves beyond the tactical focus that his earlier works exhibited and takes a deeper look at how peace-keeping strategies will be required to evolve as time passes and
Wars are a critical, global issue, as it is more elusive than ever. Even a disjointed group can mobilize and launch an ideological battle against a perceived aggressor. With increased mobility, travel and technology, battles can surface virtually anywhere. Wars emerge not only between nations, but between non state actors, insurgency groups, and between groups and religions within nations, as well. Even within the United States, battles persist between the population and law enforcement, an ideological battle concerning race and government forces. Wars have evolved since the early days of civilization (Sernau, 2012). Wars generally served one or a few purposes in early humanity, mainly the need to protect one’s tribe or territory (Sernau 2012).
Total war is a government’s mobilisation of all its resources to support the efforts of its own troops and undermine those of its opponents. The British empire was in a state of total war after the euphoric atmosphere of going to war to fight for King and Country had died down. This resulted in the Defence of the Realm Act, known as DORA where all civilians were expected to contribute to the war effort. A historians studying the impact of the war on the homefront, would find sources 12.10 and 12.14 of use, because these sources demonstrate how Britain was in a state of total war, how desperate the government was to keep the soldiers at the front lines and how WWI ultimately altered the lives of many civilians. Source 12.10 demonstrates total
The comprehension of the term ‘total war’ has had great significance towards the understanding as to how wars are fought, affect society and differ from other conflicts. The main issue that arises is conclusively defining total war and is continually differing between both historians and military combatants alike. Roger Chickering
Sun Tzu on the Nature and Character of 21st Century Warfare Sun Tzu understood the nature of war as “the province of life or death,” and a “matter of vital importance to the state.”1 I agree. In my own experience, war awakens your primordial instincts and strips you of your self-rationalizations. Sun Tzu defined the character of war when he wrote, “water has no constant form, there are in war no constant conditions.”2 Accordingly, Sun Tzu’s principals of war offer a framework adequate to explain the nature and character of 21st century warfare, which I rationalize as a near-continuous battle of ideologies fought through asymmetric means to advance the values and interests of state and non-state actors.
War as Transformation Many people look for reason in warfare. The reasons humans decide to kill each other are varied. Many wars start over land, difference of religion and culture, or economic stress. While there have been many wars over the years that man has inhabited this planet, World War
The primary sources of the book cover the post-World War II era of military science publications ranging from the mid-1950s to the late 1980s, when the main focus and debate is on Clausweitz’s famous work On War,
Mary Kaldor, a modern war theorist, is convinced that the 1980s and 1990s wars have undertaken a different dimension from what they used to be like. In particular, these Warfare’s have shown some advanced characteristics, which have emerged through the forces of globalization processes. Indeed, the "New Warfares" according to Kaldor, are worldwide systems which manifest a modern age phenomenon of the 21st century. In that, they have gradually changed the global organization, its political frameworks and its parameters. Indeed, these structures have consequently interfered and affected various political affairs internationally. It is through the electronic devices such as television, radio, newspapers and the Internet, etc., which have been
Clausewitz defines war as an “act of force to compel our enemy to do our will.” The nature of war is enduring yet the character of war changes over time. Current US strategic guidance is advancing the point of view that since the character of war has changed to focus on irregular wars then the US military should prepare for a future of irregular wars. This shift in focus forgets that the nature of war is enduring and in order to be successful, we must prepare for all types of conflict. This paper will define the types of conflict and the likelihood of each followed by a discussion of US strategic guidance and ending with an analysis of the training resources and force structure requirements needed to achieve success for all types of
Since time immemorial human beings have been fighting one another by means of more or less murderous wars. Conflicts have evolved with time, in their organization, form and goals. Actors are different, new weapons have been created, technology has enormously developed, states’ interests have changed and, most of all, a