What I Have Learned in American Government Roots and Reform

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Rafael Valdez Mr. Kearney History 1302 11/14/12 The Civil Rights Movements In May 17, 1954 The Supreme Court rules on the landmark case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans., unanimously agreeing that segregation in public schools is unconstitutional. The ruling paves the way for large-scale desegregation. The decision overturns the 1896 Plessey v. Ferguson ruling that sanctioned "separate but equal" segregation of the races, ruling that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." It is a victory for NAACP attorney Thurgood Marshall, who will later return to the Supreme Court as the nation 's first black justice. August 1955 Fourteen-year-old Chicagoan was visiting family …show more content…

Harriet Tubman 's name at birth was Araminta Ross. She was one of 11 children of Harriet and Benjamin Ross born into slavery in Dorchester County, Maryland. As a child, Ross was hired out by her master as a nursemaid for a small baby, much like the nursemaid in the picture. Ross had to stay awake all night so that the baby wouldn 't cry and wake the mother, if Ross would fall asleep; the baby 's mother would whip Ross. From a very young age, Ross was determined to gain her freedom. January 31, 1865 The Thirteenth Amendment is passed and slavery is officially abolished from the United States. The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution outlaws slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. It was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, by the House on January 31, 1865, and adopted on December 6, 1865. On December 18, Secretary of State William H. Seward proclaimed it to have been adopted. It was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted after the American Civil War. On April 4, 1968, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was hit by a sniper 's bullet. King had been standing on the balcony in front of his room at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, when, he was shot. The .30-caliber rifle bullet entered King 's right cheek, traveled through his neck, and finally stopped at his shoulder blade. King was

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