Alfred Schultz offers a philosophical basis for the concepts of Max Weber by analyzing human action and its meaning. The main idea in the reading is that phenomenology needs to be a rigorous and scientific enterprise. Schutz (36) supports his idea by analyzing a related concept by Husserl which indicated that philosophers must understand that individuals tend to perceive the globe through a natural attitude. And by bracketing the subjective perception, phenomenologists can learn the features of consciousness that govern acts, conceived as the ordering of the world. Schutz considers the personal day to day life of the world to be the essential reality. The hole in the reading, however, is how a scientist should detach themselves from the practical
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Another example of this is his identification of “introspective orientation” (Merleau-Ponty 1962, vii), which was a continuation of his dramatic emphasis on the all-pervasive, reciprocal dependence of all aspects of the embodied subject and the world in the context of accumulated perceptions (Crowther 2012, 104). Through a period of reflection and introspection, previously perceived phenomena and their aspects are recontextualised (Crowther 2012, 104), contributing to the individual’s corporeal imagination (Crowther 2009, 70) and their development of forms of apperception (Merleau-Ponty 1945, 3). Crowther (2012, 103) argues that this was the central tenet of Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology; that our most fundamental perception and knowledge of the world arises through the body’s operations as a unified sensory-motor field. This is what Merleau-Ponty (Crowther 2009, 74) termed “brute meaning”, a form of chiasmic intertwining that was more than just a primitive view, but a true, all-encompassing “direct and primitive contact with the world, and (subsequently) endowing that contact with a philosophical status”, and this tenet will be applied across this
Rene Descartes is one of the most known French philosophers among the world’s known philosophers. The most common phrase of Rene Descartes is “I think, therefore, I am” that is universally known. He further says that human being use different reasoning in an attempt to have the most equitable endowment and tackles a question on the most appropriate way that individuals might use reasoning. In his book, Meditations on First Philosophy, Rene Descartes presents an argument that opposes an individual’s trust of senses. His works are appealing but to some extent is a sense of oddity that is noticed. This paper will discuss Rene Descartes views on the sense of data, what is appealing about his argument on the senses in relation to the actual meditations.
“Evidence” by Kathryn Schulz Is an article about how accurate is the evidence that we have to form beliefs, an argues whether or not ours beliefs are true or “partially” true .She explains that what we only care about the probability that our answer might be true when solving a problem and we based that answer with our previously experiences in life. We used our inductive reasoning to make our best guess on every situation and she argues that or inductive reasoning is more complex than choosing a “probable “answer it contains “virtually all human cognition”. What stand out to me is what she later countered argues what she say before by saying that we learn language by inductive reasoning and that we did not have evidence to supported how we
As the story progresses, Caswell’s view on science becomes clearer and readers can determine for themselves where the line should be drawn to keep society safe.
Methods and Meditations on First Philosophy is a discourse by Rene Descartes, which largely focuses on the nature of humanity and divinity. This essay is a discussion of this discourse, and will summarize, explain and object to various parts of his work. The majority of this essay focuses on Descartes Sixth Meditation, which includes his argument that corporeal things do exist.
This is in response to the above-referenced complaint filed by Ms. Michelle Motz. In her complaint, Ms. Motz state she has not received adequate service and has not sufficiently compensated on her account. Furthermore, her phone hangs up on important calls repeatedly, adds applications without her consent and uses up her data. Ms. Motz requests assistance with this matter.
Max Weber (1864-1920), a well known German sociologist, saw society was organised into status groups, with a common lifestyle. There are three factors, that determine an individuals chances in life which are, economic, status and power. When all these factors are combined, these elements create better circumstances, for an individual. It can therefore be noted, that an individuals social class, can have a large influence, on many parts of their life. A significant issue for sociologist and society, is
Father of Modern thought and mental symbol of how many western thinkers today process the world they live in, Rene Descartes, developed a dualistic way of thought that steals the attention away from other modes of further developed thought now held in Post-Modernistic and even contemporary types of viewing reality. His theory of Cartesian dualism of thought brings about two distinct realities people, supposedly to Descartes, inhabit throughout their daily lives. These include the existence of a Res Cogitans, the domain of thinking things, and a Res Extensa, the domain of matter or exterior world. This split creates causal paradigms in cultures that begin to pick one domain over the other wherein hopefully this paper will inspect the shift in
In Evidence, by Kathryn Schulz claims "we" form our judgement on evidence that people assume it is true. "We" base our "specific and formal ideas about evidence [by] - what kind of information qualifies, how to gather it, how to evaluate it" (Schulz, 363) and "form them, as judges form their opinions and juries reach their decisions, based on the evidence" (Schulz, 363). Schulz emphasize the difference between "we" humans and computers by providing readers with "easy" multiple choice quiz. Schulz then believed that the readers "found this quiz so easy that [readers] don’t think congratulations are called for. But... this quiz is not easy [,at least for computers]" (Schulz, 365). So "why is [this quiz] so effortless for a person all but impossible
We think that William Lutz did a better job persuading us to his thesis because the wording in advertisements is more impactful than visual and verbal cues. In advertisements, every word is carefully chosen and deliberately designed to deceive and delude (Ben and Robert’s four D’s of advertising©)the consumer through false claims and unregulated words such as fights, improved, and virtually. The words in advertisements work like magic by shifting the consumer’s focus from the product to the ludicrous claim that the product is making. Lutz’ examples include both examples of using a single word, and using multiple weasel words to create claims. The skin cream ad that says “‘For skin like peaches and cream’” is an excellent example of both “for”
He tried to drag me out of the seat, but the moment he caught hold of my arm I fastened my teeth in the back of his hand. I had braced my feet against the back of the seat in front and was holding to the back and as he had already been badly bitten he didn't try it again by himself. He went forward and got the baggage man and another man to help him and of course they succeeded in dragging me out. They were encouraged to do this by the attitude of the white ladies and gentlemen in the car; some of them even stood on the seats so that they could get a good view and continued applauding the conductor for his brave stand. (Schiff, pp. 2).
Schutzmacher treats only lower class people and seems to make a living out of it. He didn’t give any medicine to his patients. He doesn’t do any surgery. When his patients are sick, he just give them some advices and the patients get well on their own. At his clinic, he put a sign that said “Cure guaranteed”. That was the secret behind his success. In my opinion, I would never go to his clinic because he won’t do anything for me, but giving me advices and hope that I get better. What if I was in critical condition? What can advices do for me? These are the reason I would go to his clinic.
I believe she did the right thing by nursing the baby back to health because it was done in good faith to stop the baby’s suffering. However, Dr. Scheper-Hughes’ decision to treat the baby went a little further than simply observing, describing, and analyzing the events in the Brazilian shantytown. Some of the costs of her decision include judging the Brazilian shantytown’s culture based on her own culture. For instance, she critiques the medical system and religious institutions of Bom Jesus, which promote ideas that are central to their culture, as malevolent actors in the routinization of child death. This might cause others to argue that Dr. Scheper-Hughes’ argument is similar to the imperial “civilizing” process and that it is judgmental
Gadamer’s hermenutics is a continuation of the hermenutics of Heidegger, Gadamer held that contemplation is the opposite to experience and reflection and we can only reach the truth by understanding our experience. To unfold the nature of individual understanding is vital. He criticised Dilthey in his book Truth and Method (1975) where he claims that he is limited by his insistence of a ‘totality of meaning’, his aim was to uncover the nature of human understanding. Gadamer’s thoughts suggest that every heremeneutic act is already structred by coscious and unconscious Vorurteile (preconceptions) that determine the way in which an object is seen. There is no completely objective view of an issue, as for the viewer, a bias will always be there.