1- The body of evidence: An overview of the international normative concept of accessibility The right of Persons with Different Abilities (PDA) to accessible facilities, according to the General Comment no.2 of the UN Committee on the Rights of Disabled Persons , is not only a precondition which without it they could not enjoy their human rights, independent life and equal participation (2014: 1&4), but also other Human Rights conventions have emphasized on it since it is tightly connected to other rights (ibid:1-2). This right, noted in Article 9 of the Convention on the Right of people with disability , includes “access on equal bases” to: “(a) Buildings, roads, transportation and other indoor and outdoor facilities, including …show more content…
Thirdly, one MP, in the assembly, showed others a letter written by DNGOs and signed by thousands of citizens in favor of the bill (ibid). While ratification of the convention and the new law are important developments, implementation is still problematic. Iran’s report shows there are some existing laws regarding the accessibility (IMFA, 2015: 9), however researches and authorities remarks indicate shortcomings. Only 30% of streets in the capital are adapted according to the deputy of SWO (Shokri & Rezvan-Nia, 2015). Also, there are field researches (Mahmoudi & Mazloomi, 2014) and reports (ISCA, 2016, 2017, Tavaana, 2017, Self-helping Disabled People Group, 2016) indicating the existing adapted areas are improper (see figures 1-11 as examples of lack of adaption or inappropriate adaptation ). Figure 1: The blind’s passage is cut by the canal. Photo source: (Nice Passage Design for the Blind, 2017) Figure2, Photo source: (ISCA, 2016) Figure 3, Cement electricity bar has been forgotten to be removed, Photo source: (ISCA, 2016) Figure 4, Photo source: (ISCA, 2017) Figure 5: the bar preventing motorcycles to use the accessible passage is not implemented accurately. Photo source: (Tavaana, 2017) Figure 6: The yellow wall is the wall on the left is the Welfare Center where PDAs go for rehabilitation services in Sanandaj, the center of Kurdistan province.
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The society, despite its current level of development, violates the rights of persons with disabilities, when it is led by prejudices, when it denies employment and study opportunities to an individual with a disability or when building inaccessible buildings. But accessibility must also occur in all areas available to anyone: health, education, work, culture; Sports, leisure, and recreation, technology, media,
Disability is of particular interest for justice because of the way in which it contrasts two basic and powerful senses of injustice: (1) the treatment of people as moral, social or political inferiors on the basis of irrelevant characteristics and (2) the perpetuation and/or failure to correct inequalities between income, wealth, health and other aspects of well-being amongst individuals. Article 13 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) guarantees access to justice. This article has two sections: first, “States Parties shall ensure effective access to justice for persons with disabilities on an equal basis with others, including through the provision of procedural and age-appropriate accommodations, in order to facilitate their effective role as direct and indirect participants, including as witnesses, in all legal proceedings, including at investigative and other preliminary stages; and second, in order to help to ensure effective access to justice for persons with disabilities, States Parties shall promote appropriate training for those work” (United Nations, 2006, p. 11). Cremin (2016) provided insights on the parameters of article 13. He discussed how article 13 attempts to clarify what effective access to justice requires and also provides recommendations on how the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities can improve its guidance on access to justice to help ensure equal rights for persons with disabilities.
Unlike people who had experienced discrimination against the civil rights act of 1964, the ones who had experienced it on the basis of disability didn’t have any legal recourse to redress it. Therefore, with a very strong influence from the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which forbids discrimination on the foundation of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 which set people with disabilities as a legitimate minority, the ADA became the "equal opportunity" law that has set an example for the rest of the world. This act finally defined what non-discrimination was in the context of disability. The 1990 ADA added the specifications of a new conduct that should be undertaken, for instance, architectural and communication barriers should be removed by providing reasonable accommodation to disabled workers, and finally, it also imposed accessibility requirements for public spaces.
Moreover, the organization strategically uses civil disobedience as a tool to gain international attention in order to resist harmful laws and advocate legislative changes in policies that negatively affect the disabled community. It engages in mobilization, grassroots education, training, legal advocacy, and in psychological strengthening of the people with disabilities. It educates them that their disability doesn’t make them underprivileged or undeserving of any facility and service that is available to other citizens, and they deserve equal
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is of the view anyone with or without a disability should be given the same rights. Human Rights are what it says that they are “universal and enjoyed by everyone”. (Hale 2014: p12). Needless to say many critics describe DoLS as “not fit for purpose” (Taylor 2012: p. 2). Bartlett (2014) raising a point the ECHR
The Americans with Disabilities Act inhibited many pros in the social realm because of a number of reasons. As stated by the US Department of Education “ It guarantees equal opportunity for individuals with disabilities in employment, public accommodations, transportation, State and local government services, and telecommunications.” By establishing this it gives everyone regardless of their physical or mental state a fair circumstance that everyone can live by. In addition not all locations or buildings accommodated the need of
Historically, people with disabilities were seen as being unable to contribute to society and therefore were viewed as being dependent on others for care. The dependency that was created resulted in persons with disabilities being seen as unhealthy and defective (Neuhaus et al, 2014). In effort to care for people with disabilities, agencies such as Anixter have confined people with disabilities to buildings and kept them from becoming participating citizens in their natural communities.
The City of London Accessibility Plan, for the case, assumes a controlling part in executing the administrative necessities which were proposed to expulsion existing hindrances and anticipated potential obstructions to the Londoners with incapacities. Accessibility components are intended to individuals with disabilities utilizes innovation all the more effortlessly. For instance, a content to-discourse highlight may read the message so everyone
The people who run the transit system much also provide special transportation services for people with disabilities who are unable to use the normal services. The bus stations must be accessible to people with disabilities. The bus stations must provide telephones, bathrooms and drinking fountains that would be accessible for people with disabilities. The Rail vehicles also fall under Title III. New rail vehicles must also be accessible August, 26 1990. Existing rail systems have to have one car accessible by July 26, 1995. All new rail station must be handicap
Please be advised that the contractor for Segment C spoke with Tony Castro, and that although this is not part of the contractor's scope of work the contractor will replace all four "DO NOT ENTER" signs along the off ramps at I-75 and Pines Blvd. Please note that installation will take two to three months.
After studying this article, contemporary scholars should pursue to transform the definition of the word disabled. Although new laws have been enacted to accommodate the disabled in the public, the failure to redefine the term “disabled” shows the stagnation of our society. Hahn’s definition of disabled should greatly contrast from the definition we use today because in today’s society, disabled people have almost all of the accessibilities they need in order to fit in with the environment and the community in which they live
According to Shakespeare, people with disabilities and nondisabled allies have worked together over the past three decades through the disability movement which he refers to as the ‘last liberation movement.’ This movement focused national attention onto the social oppression and cultural discourse that people with disabilities face every day in our country and the lack of regulations and laws in place that would prevent this kind of discrimination from happening.
While concrete highway barriers may appear simple on the outside, they are, on the contrary, quite sophisticated safety devices. Often found on highways, construction sites, and other places of traffic, they serve a number of functions such as minimizing car crossovers, reducing head-on collisions, enhancing security, and protecting designated areas.
A person with a disability, or handicap, can be defined as someone with a physical or mental impairment, which has a substantial or long-term adverse affect on his or her ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities (Employment 2). Handicap workers face many challenges in the work place that the average person overlooks. Also, many special arrangements and alterations have been made to the workplace for people with handicaps. Accessibility, transportation, workload, and salary are just some of the many issues that must be considered with the prospect of employing the handicap.