Why English Learners Struggle With Content Literacy

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5. Why do English learners struggle with content literacy tasks, and how does sheltered instruction make content more accessible to them while providing additional language support? English learners (ELs) struggle with content literacy task because the “academic language of texts is not the language of conversational speech” Vacca et al. (2014, P.77). Every content area has a specific language. ELs find it difficult because they are not familiar with the academic language in that content area. For example, an English learner in first grade might have difficulties understanding his peers in a reading group excises because of the content language but, when they go outside to play, they communicate fluently because this English learner has mastered the playground language. Teachers can make content more accessible to students by using a variety of instructional strategies or aids to assist students with English language problems in reading, writing, listening and speaking. Interactive, cooperative activities, pictures, relevant media etc. are some of the shelter instructional strategies which teachers can use to make content accessible to students (p.82). 6. How does assessment help us set instructional goals? Teachers use formative, summative, and informal assessments to determine whether learning has taken place. An assessment can be done before, during and at the end of a unit. Teachers use the data collected from the performance of students to set instructional goals
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