1. A researcher was interested in investigating the effectiveness of four different drugs and aplacebo (sugar pill) on cholesterol levels. Twenty-five participants were randomly assigned toone of five conditions, where they received either a placebo (control)) or one of the fourcholesterol drugs. Two of the drugs had been on the market for several years (Drug A and DrugB), while the other two drugs were recently released (Drug C and Drug D). Conduct theappropriate test to assess whether there is an overall difference between the 5 drugs (that is,conduct the appropriate procedure that assesses, in a single test, whether there is a differenceanywhere between the groups). (Testing exactly where the differences are for this problem is notrequired; what I want you to do is perform the appropriate overall test to assess if differencesexist in general in the data). Higher scores indicate worse cholesterolType of pillDrug B-old145, 159, 171170, 168Drug A-old163, 161, 153,166, 174Drug D - new132, 142, 135156, 142PlaceboDrug C -new116, 117, 132,127, 134188, 179, 158,173, 150a. State the null and alternative hypotheses for the test belowb. Report the results of the hypothesis test in (a) below. Be sure to express the results in terms ofthe context of the study and use APA format as appropriate. (Post hoc tests are not required here-just the overall APA formatted results of the test of the null hypothesis provided in (a) above.)C. What is the effect size for the study? Calculate and report the effect size below. Interpret theeffect size according to Cohen's standards

Question
Asked Nov 5, 2019

I have attached the question as a picture. Please if you can section the question in its three parts A, B, and C.

 

Thank you.

1. A researcher was interested in investigating the effectiveness of four different drugs and a
placebo (sugar pill) on cholesterol levels. Twenty-five participants were randomly assigned to
one of five conditions, where they received either a placebo (control)) or one of the four
cholesterol drugs. Two of the drugs had been on the market for several years (Drug A and Drug
B), while the other two drugs were recently released (Drug C and Drug D). Conduct the
appropriate test to assess whether there is an overall difference between the 5 drugs (that is,
conduct the appropriate procedure that assesses, in a single test, whether there is a difference
anywhere between the groups). (Testing exactly where the differences are for this problem is not
required; what I want you to do is perform the appropriate overall test to assess if differences
exist in general in the data). Higher scores indicate worse cholesterol
Type of pill
Drug B-old
145, 159, 171
170, 168
Drug A-old
163, 161, 153,
166, 174
Drug D - new
132, 142, 135
156, 142
Placebo
Drug C -new
116, 117, 132,
127, 134
188, 179, 158,
173, 150
a. State the null and alternative hypotheses for the test below
b. Report the results of the hypothesis test in (a) below. Be sure to express the results in terms of
the context of the study and use APA format as appropriate. (Post hoc tests are not required here
-just the overall APA formatted results of the test of the null hypothesis provided in (a) above.)
C. What is the effect size for the study? Calculate and report the effect size below. Interpret the
effect size according to Cohen's standards
help_outline

Image Transcriptionclose

1. A researcher was interested in investigating the effectiveness of four different drugs and a placebo (sugar pill) on cholesterol levels. Twenty-five participants were randomly assigned to one of five conditions, where they received either a placebo (control)) or one of the four cholesterol drugs. Two of the drugs had been on the market for several years (Drug A and Drug B), while the other two drugs were recently released (Drug C and Drug D). Conduct the appropriate test to assess whether there is an overall difference between the 5 drugs (that is, conduct the appropriate procedure that assesses, in a single test, whether there is a difference anywhere between the groups). (Testing exactly where the differences are for this problem is not required; what I want you to do is perform the appropriate overall test to assess if differences exist in general in the data). Higher scores indicate worse cholesterol Type of pill Drug B-old 145, 159, 171 170, 168 Drug A-old 163, 161, 153, 166, 174 Drug D - new 132, 142, 135 156, 142 Placebo Drug C -new 116, 117, 132, 127, 134 188, 179, 158, 173, 150 a. State the null and alternative hypotheses for the test below b. Report the results of the hypothesis test in (a) below. Be sure to express the results in terms of the context of the study and use APA format as appropriate. (Post hoc tests are not required here -just the overall APA formatted results of the test of the null hypothesis provided in (a) above.) C. What is the effect size for the study? Calculate and report the effect size below. Interpret the effect size according to Cohen's standards

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check_circleExpert Solution
Step 1

Part a:

Denote μP, μA, μB, μC, μD as the mean effects of the placebo, and Drugs A, B, C, D respectively.

Then, the null and alternative hypotheses are:

H0: μP = μA = μB = μC = μD; vs H1: At least one μ is different from the others.

Step 2

Part b:

We have performed the calculations in Excel.

Enter the data in five 5 columns for the 5 treatments, each observation in its own cell.

Go to Data > Data Analysis > Anova: Single Factor > OK.

Enter Input Range as $A$1:$E$6.

Select Columns for Grouped By.

Tick on the box for Labels in first row.

Enter Alpha as 0.05.

Click OK.

The output is obtained below:

Anova: Single Factor
SUMMARY
Groups
Placebo
Count
Sum Average
5 848
5 817
5 813
Variance
169.6
239.3
Drug A-old
163.4
58.3
162.6
119.3
Drug B- old
Drug C-new
Drug D- new
5 626
125.2
69.7
5 707
141.4
85.8
ANOVA
Source of Variation
Between Groups
df
F crit
SS
MS
F
P-value
6908.56
4 1727.14 15.08682739 7.77244E-06 2.866081402
Within Groups
2289.6
20
114.48
9198.16
Total
24
help_outline

Image Transcriptionclose

Anova: Single Factor SUMMARY Groups Placebo Count Sum Average 5 848 5 817 5 813 Variance 169.6 239.3 Drug A-old 163.4 58.3 162.6 119.3 Drug B- old Drug C-new Drug D- new 5 626 125.2 69.7 5 707 141.4 85.8 ANOVA Source of Variation Between Groups df F crit SS MS F P-value 6908.56 4 1727.14 15.08682739 7.77244E-06 2.866081402 Within Groups 2289.6 20 114.48 9198.16 Total 24

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Step 3

Calculation:

The P-value for the between-groups variation (variation due to treatments) is (7.77 × 10–6), which can be considered to be approximately 0.

Thus, the null hypothesis is rejected.

Report in APA format:

An analysis of variance (AN...

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