Problem 6.1QP: Define energy, kinetic energy, potential energy, and internal energy. Problem 6.2QP: Define the joule in terms of SI base units. Problem 6.3QP Problem 6.4QP: Describe the interconversions of potential and kinetic energy in a moving pendulum. A moving... Problem 6.5QP: Suppose heat flows into a vessel containing a gas. As the heat flows into the gas, what happens to... Problem 6.6QP: Define an exothermic reaction and an endothermic reaction. Give an example of each. Problem 6.7QP Problem 6.8QP: Under what condition is the enthalpy change equal to the heat of reaction? Problem 6.9QP Problem 6.10QP: Why is it important to give the states of the reactants and products when giving an equation for H? Problem 6.11QP: If an equation for a reaction is doubled and then reversed, how is the value of H changed? Problem 6.12QP Problem 6.13QP Problem 6.14QP: Describe a simple calorimeter. What measurements are needed to determine the heat of reaction? Problem 6.15QP Problem 6.16QP: You discover that you cannot carry out a particular reaction for which you would like the enthalpy... Problem 6.17QP Problem 6.18QP Problem 6.19QP Problem 6.20QP Problem 6.21QP: Is the following reaction the appropriate one to use in determining the enthalpy of formation of... Problem 6.22QP Problem 6.23QP Problem 6.24QP Problem 6.25QP: The equation for the combustion of 2 mol of butane can be written 2C4H10(g)+O2(g)8CO2(g)+10H2O(g);HO... Problem 6.26QP: A 5.0-g sample of water starting at 60.0C loses 418 J of energy in the form of heat. What is the... Problem 6.27QP: Hypothetical elements A2 and B2 react according to the following equation, forming the compound AB.... Problem 6.28QP: Consider the following specific heats of metals. Metal Specific Heat copper 0.385 J/(gC) magnesium... Problem 6.29QP: Thermal Interactions Part 1: In an insulated container, you mix 200. g of water at 80C with 100. g... Problem 6.30QP: Enthalpy a A 100.-g sample of water is placed in an insulated container and allowed to come to room... Problem 6.31QP: Chemical reactions are run in each of the beakers depicted below (labeled A, B, and C). The... Problem 6.32QP: Shown below is a diagram depicting the enthalpy change of a chemical reaction run at constant... Problem 6.33QP: A small car is traveling at twice the speed of a larger car, which has twice the mass of the smaller... Problem 6.34QP: The equation for the combustion of butane, C4H10, is C4H10(g)+132O2(g)4CO2(g)+5H2O(g) Which one of... Problem 6.35QP: A 250-g sample of water at 20.0C is placed in a freezer that is held at a constant temperature of... Problem 6.36QP: A 20.0-g block of iron at 50.0C and a 20.0 g block of aluminum at 45C are placed in contact with... Problem 6.37QP Problem 6.38QP: A block of aluminum and a block of iron, both having the same mass, are removed from a freezer and... Problem 6.39QP: You have two samples of different metals, metal A and metal B, each having the same mass. You heat... Problem 6.40QP: Consider the reactions of silver metal, Ag(s), with each of the halogens: fluorine, F2(g), chlorine,... Problem 6.41QP Problem 6.42QP: A soluble salt, MX2, is added to water in a beaker. The equation for the dissolving of the salt is:... Problem 6.43QP: Methane, CH4, is a major component of marsh gas. When 0.5000 mol methane burns to produce carbon... Problem 6.44QP: Hydrogen sulfide, H2S, is produced during decomposition of organic matter. When 0.5000 mol H2S burns... Problem 6.45QP Problem 6.46QP Problem 6.47QP: Chlorine dioxide, ClO2, is a reddish yellow gas used in bleaching paper pulp. The average speed of a... Problem 6.48QP: Nitrous oxide, N2O, has been used as a dental anesthetic. The average speed of an N2O molecule at... Problem 6.49QP: A gas is cooled and loses 82 J of heat. The gas contracts as it cools, and work done on the system... Problem 6.50QP: An ideal gas expands isothermally (at constant temperature). The internal energy of an ideal gas... Problem 6.51QP: The process of dissolving ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3, in water is an endothermic process. What is the... Problem 6.52QP: The decomposition of ozone, O3, to oxygen, O2, is an exothermic reaction. What is the sign of q? If... Problem 6.53QP: Nitric acid, a source of many nitrogen compounds, is produced from nitrogen dioxide. An old process... Problem 6.54QP: Hydrogen cyanide is used in the manufacture of clear plastics such as Lucite and Plexiglas. It is... Problem 6.55QP: What is U when 1.00 mol of liquid water vaporizes at 100C? The heat of vaporization, Hvap, of water... Problem 6.56QP: What is U for the following reaction at 25C? 2H2(g)+O2(g)2H2O(l) Problem 6.57QP: When 1 mol of iron metal reacts with hydrochloric acid at constant temperature and pressure to... Problem 6.58QP: When 2 mol of potassium chlorate crystals decompose to potassium chloride crystals and oxygen gas at... Problem 6.59QP: When white phosphorus burns in air, it produces phosphorus(V) oxide. P4(s)+5O2(g)P4O10(s);H=3010kJ... Problem 6.60QP: Carbon disulfide burns in air, producing carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide.... Problem 6.61QP: Phosphoric acid, H3PO4, can be prepared by the reaction of phosphorus(V) oxide, P4O10, with water.... Problem 6.62QP: With a platinum catalyst, ammonia will burn in oxygen to give nitric oxide, NO.... Problem 6.63QP: Colorless nitric oxide, NO, combines with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide, NO2, a brown gas.... Problem 6.64QP: Hydrogen, H2, is used as a rocket fuel. The hydrogen is burned in oxygen to produce water vapor.... Problem 6.65QP: Ammonia burns in the presence of a copper catalyst to form nitrogen gas.... Problem 6.66QP: Hydrogen sulfide, H2S, is a foul-smelling gas. It burns to form sulfur dioxide.... Problem 6.67QP: Propane, C3H8, is a common fuel gas. Use the following to calculate the grams of propane you would... Problem 6.68QP: Ethanol, C2H5OH, is mixed with gasoline and sold as gasohol. Use the following to calculate the... Problem 6.69QP: You wish to heat water to make coffee. How much heat (in joules) must be used to raise the... Problem 6.70QP: An iron skillet weighing 1.63 kg is heated on a stove to 178C. Suppose the skillet is cooled to room... Problem 6.71QP: When steam condenses to liquid water, 2.26 kJ of heat is released per gram. The heat from 168 g of... Problem 6.72QP: When ice at 0C melts to liquid water at 0C, it absorbs 0.334 kJ of heat per gram. Suppose the heat... Problem 6.73QP: When 15.3 g of sodium nitrate, NaNO3, was dissolved in water in a constant-pressure calorimeter, the... Problem 6.74QP: When 23.6 g of calcium chloride, CaCl2, was dissolved in water in a constant-pressure calorimeter,... Problem 6.75QP: A sample of ethanol, C2H5OH, weighing 2.84 g was burned in an excess of oxygen in a bomb... Problem 6.76QP: A sample of benzene, C6H6, weighing 3.51 g was burned in an excess of oxygen in a bomb calorimeter.... Problem 6.77QP: Hydrazine, N2H4, is a colorless liquid used as a rocket fuel. What is the enthalpy change for the... Problem 6.78QP: Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, is a colorless liquid whose solutions are used as a bleach and an... Problem 6.79QP: Ammonia will burn in the presence of a platinum catalyst to produce nitric oxide, NO.... Problem 6.80QP: Hydrogen cyanide is a highly poisonous, volatile liquid. It can be prepared by the reaction... Problem 6.81QP: Compounds with carboncarbon double bonds, such as ethylene, C2H4, add hydrogen in a reaction called... Problem 6.82QP: Acetic acid, CH3COOH, is contained in vinegar. Suppose acetic acid was formed from its elements,... Problem 6.83QP: The cooling effect of alcohol on the skin is due to its evaporation. Calculate the heat of... Problem 6.84QP: Carbon tetrachloride, CCl4, is a liquid used as an industrial solvent and in the preparation of... Problem 6.85QP: Hydrogen sulfide gas is a poisonous gas with the odor of rotten eggs. It occurs in natural gas and... Problem 6.86QP: Carbon disulfide is a colorless liquid. When pure, it is nearly odorless, but the commercial product... Problem 6.87QP: Iron is obtained from iron ore by reduction with carbon monoxide. The overall reaction is... Problem 6.88QP: The first step in the preparation of lead from its ore (galena, PbS) consists of roasting the ore.... Problem 6.89QP: Hydrogen chloride gas dissolves in water to form hydrochloric acid (an ionic solution).... Problem 6.90QP: Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere weathers, or dissolves, limestone (CaCO3) by the reaction... Problem 6.91QP: The Group 2A carbonates decompose when heated. For example, MgCO3(s)MgO(s)+CO2(g) Use enthalpies of... Problem 6.92QP: The Group 2A carbonates decompose when heated. For example, BaCO3(s)BaO(s)+CO2(g) Use enthalpies of... Problem 6.93QP Problem 6.94QP Problem 6.95QP: Liquid hydrogen peroxide has been used as a propellant for rockets. Hydrogen peroxide decomposes... Problem 6.96QP: Hydrogen is an ideal fuel in many respects; for example, the product of its combustion, water, is... Problem 6.97QP: Niagara Falls has a height of 167 ft (American Falls). What is the potential energy in joules of... Problem 6.98QP Problem 6.99QP: When calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (the major constituent of limestone and seashells), is heated, it... Problem 6.100QP: Calcium oxide (quicklime) reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide (slaked lime).... Problem 6.101QP: Formic acid, HCHO2, was first discovered in ants (formica is Latin for ant). In an experiment, 5.48... Problem 6.102QP: Acetic acid, HC2H3O2, is the sour constituent of vinegar (acetum is Latin for vinegar). In an... Problem 6.103QP: Suppose you mix 19.8 g of water at 80.0C with 54.7 g of water at 29.0C in an insulated cup. What is... Problem 6.104QP: Suppose you mix 23.6 g of water at 66.2C with 45.4 g of water at 35.7C in an insulated cup. What is... Problem 6.105QP: A piece of lead of mass 121.6 g was heated by an electrical coil. From the resistance of the coil,... Problem 6.106QP: The specific heat of copper metal was determined by putting a piece of the metal weighing 35.4 g in... Problem 6.107QP: A 44.3 g sample of water at 100.00C was placed in an insulated cup. Then 25.4 g of zinc metal at... Problem 6.108QP: A 19.6-g sample of a metal was heated to 61.67C. When the metal was placed into 26.7 g of water in a... Problem 6.109QP: A 21.3-mL sample of 0.977 M NaOH is mixed with 29.5 mL of 0.918 M HCl in a coffee-cup calorimeter... Problem 6.110QP: A 29.1-mL sample of 1.05 M KOH is mixed with 20.9 mL of 1.07 M HBr in a coffee-cup calorimeter (see... Problem 6.111QP: In a calorimetric experiment, 6.48 g of lithium hydroxide, LiOH, was dissolved in water. The... Problem 6.112QP: When 21.45 g of potassium nitrate, KNO3, was dissolved in water in a calorimeter, the temperature... Problem 6.113QP: A 10.00-g sample of acetic acid, HC2H3O2, was burned in a bomb calorimeter in an excess of oxygen.... Problem 6.114QP: The sugar arabinose, C5H10O5, is burned completely in oxygen in a calorimeter.... Problem 6.115QP: Hydrogen sulfide, H2S, is a poisonous gas with the odor of rotten eggs. The reaction for the... Problem 6.116QP: Ethylene glycol, HOCH2CH2OH, is used as antifreeze. It is produced from ethylene oxide, C2H4O, by... Problem 6.117QP: Hydrogen, H2, is prepared by steam reforming, in which hydrocarbons are reacted with steam. For CH4,... Problem 6.118QP: Hydrogen is prepared from natural gas (mainly methane, CH4) by partial oxidation.... Problem 6.119QP: Calcium oxide, CaO, is prepared by heating calcium carbonate (from limestone and seashells).... Problem 6.120QP: Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, is used to manufacture glass. It is obtained from sodium hydrogen... Problem 6.121QP: Calculate the heat released when 2,395 L O2 with a density of 1.11 g/L at 25C reacts with an excess... Problem 6.122QP Problem 6.123QP: Sucrose, C12H22O11, is common table sugar. The enthalpy change at 25C and 1 atm for the complete... Problem 6.124QP Problem 6.125QP: Ammonium nitrate is an oxidizing agent and can give rise to explosive mixtures. A mixture of 2.00... Problem 6.126QP Problem 6.127QP Problem 6.128QP Problem 6.129QP Problem 6.130QP Problem 6.131QP Problem 6.132QP Problem 6.133QP: Dry ice is solid carbon dioxide; it vaporizes at room temperature and normal pressures to the gas.... Problem 6.134QP Problem 6.135QP Problem 6.136QP: Sulfur dioxide gas reacts with oxygen, O2(g), to produce SO3(g). This reaction releases 99.0 kJ of... Problem 6.137QP: When solid iron burns in oxygen gas (at constant pressure) to produce Fe2O3(s), 1651 kJ of heat is... Problem 6.138QP: Calculate the grams of oxygen gas required to produce 7.60 kJ of heat when hydrogen gas burns at... Problem 6.139QP: Hydrogen is burned in oxygen to release heat (see equation below). How many grams of hydrogen gas... Problem 6.140QP Problem 6.141QP Problem 6.142QP Problem 6.143QP: You heat 1.000 quart of water from 25.0C to its normal boiling point by burning a quantity of... Problem 6.144QP: A piece of iron was heated to 95.4C and dropped into a constant-pressure calorimeter containing 284... Problem 6.145QP: The enthalpy of combustion, H, for benzoic acid, C6H5COOH, is 3226 kJ/mol. When a sample of benzoic... Problem 6.146QP: Given the following (hypothetical) thermochemical equations:... Problem 6.147QP: The head of a strike anywhere match contains tetraphosphorus trisulfide, P4S3. In an experiment, a... Problem 6.148QP: Toluene C6H5CH3, has an enthalpy of combustion of 3908 kJ/mol. Using data from Appendix C, calculate... Problem 6.149QP: What will be the final temperature of a mixture made from 25.0 g of water at 15.0C, 45.0 g of water... Problem 6.150QP: What will be the final temperature of a mixture made from equal masses of the following: water at... Problem 6.151QP: Graphite is burned in oxygen to give carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. If the product mixture is... Problem 6.152QP: A sample of natural gas is 80.0% CH4 and 20.0% C2H6 by mass. What is the heat from the combustion of... Problem 6.153QP Problem 6.154QP Problem 6.155QP: How much heat is released when a mixture containing 10.0 g NH3 and 20.0 g O2 reacts by the following... Problem 6.156QP: How much heat is released when a mixture containing 10.0 g CS2 and 10.0 g Cl2 reacts by the... Problem 6.157QP: Consider the Haber process: N2(g)+3H2(g)2NH3(g);H=91.8kJ The density of ammonia at 25C and 1.00 atm... Problem 6.158QP: An industrial process for manufacturing sulfuric acid, H2SO4, uses hydrogen sulfide, H2S, from the... Problem 6.159QP: The carbon dioxide exhaled in the breath of astronauts is often removed from the spacecraft by... Problem 6.160QP: A rebreathing gas mask contains potassium superoxide, KO2, which reacts with moisture in the breath... Problem 6.161QP format_list_bulleted