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Asked Jan 5, 2020
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 Explain the mechanism by which DNA is replicated. 

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Expert Answer

Step 1

DNA replication in prokaryotes is an essential mechanism to maintain the consistency of characters in subsequent generations.

The replication machinery is simpler when compared to eukaryotes.

In prokaryotic DNA, the replication starts at a specific site called as the Origin of Replication. Here, there are two replication forks that undergo replication in two directions. The DNA strand a double helical structure of two single strands of DNA that are complementary to each other. Therefore, one strand is called as the template strand which runs from 3’ to 5’ end and the complementary strand runs from 5’ to 3’ end. The Origin of Replication is maintained by two enzymes- DNA helicase that unwinds the DNA strand and DNA Gyrase that prevents the DNA from getting supercoils. Other than that, there are single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSBs) that bind to the newly developed single strand to stabilize it.

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Step 2

On each single strand, there binds an enzyme Primase than creates a small fragment of RNA primer on each strand.

Biology homework question answer, step 2, image 1
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Step 3

After completion of primer synthesis, the primase enzyme lifts off and allows the DNA Polymerase III enzyme to bind to the primer. Since DNA Polymerase III ca...

Biology homework question answer, step 3, image 1
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