# In some natural systems the pH must be maintained within very narrow limits. e.g. in human blood the pH must remain close to 7.4 or cell deterioration occurs. Blood contains several weak acid/conjugate base equilibria called buffers, which control the pH.One weak acid present in blood is the dihydrogen phosphate ion, H2PO4-(aq), for which the equilibrium in aqueous solution is H2PO4-(aq) +H2O(l) <--> HPO42-(aq) + H3O+(aq).a) What would be the effect on this equillibrium of adding hydrochloric acid solution?b) Write the expression for the equilibrium constant of this reaction.c) If 0.5 mol H2PO4- and 0.5 mol HPO42- are in equilibrium in 1.0L of aqueous solution, calculate the pH of the solution. (Ka for H2PO4-= 6.4 x 10-8)d) 0.010 mol HCl is now added to the 1.0L of the solution in c). Assuming that all the added H+ ions are used up in the equilibrium shift, calculate the concentrations of H2PO4- and HPO42-. Hence calcuate the pH of this solution.e) 0.010 mol HCl has been added to water then made up to 1.0L of solution. Calculate the pH.f) From the above results comment on the effectiveness of the H2PO4- / HPO42- equilibrium on the control of pH in blood.

Question

In some natural systems the pH must be maintained within very narrow limits. e.g. in human blood the pH must remain close to 7.4 or cell deterioration occurs. Blood contains several weak acid/conjugate base equilibria called buffers, which control the pH.

One weak acid present in blood is the dihydrogen phosphate ion, H2PO4-(aq), for which the equilibrium in aqueous solution is H2PO4-(aq) +H2O(l) <--> HPO42-(aq) + H3O+(aq).

a) What would be the effect on this equillibrium of adding hydrochloric acid solution?

b) Write the expression for the equilibrium constant of this reaction.

c) If 0.5 mol H2PO4- and 0.5 mol HPO42- are in equilibrium in 1.0L of aqueous solution, calculate the pH of the solution. (Ka for H2PO4-= 6.4 x 10-8)

d) 0.010 mol HCl is now added to the 1.0L of the solution in c). Assuming that all the added H+ ions are used up in the equilibrium shift, calculate the concentrations of H2PO4- and HPO42-. Hence calcuate the pH of this solution.

e) 0.010 mol HCl has been added to water then made up to 1.0L of solution. Calculate the pH.

f) From the above results comment on the effectiveness of the H2PO4- / HPO42- equilibrium on the control of pH in blood.

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A reversible chemical reaction can move in either forward or backward direction. The stage of a reversible reaction at which the rate of forward and backward reaction become equal to each other is called an equilibrium stage.

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The equilibrium constant for a reaction is the ratio of equilibrium concentration of product and reactant. If ...

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