Question
Asked Dec 17, 2019
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Microbiology-Describe the physical or anatomical barriers at the following body sites, and explain how they accomplish body defense: 

A) Respiratory Tract

B) Urinary Tract

 

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Expert Answer

Step 1

Anatomical barriers:

These are tough and intact barriers which prevent the entry and colonization of most of the microbes. It is very first line of defense. It is formed of anatomical barriers, and their parts. It tries to stop an attacker from entering into the body in the first place.

For example: The mucous membranes, the skin, and bony encasements.

Step 2

A). Respiratory tract:

It is the course created by the nose, mouth, throat, and lungs. The air passes through this passage during breathing.

Anatomical and physical barriers of respiratory tract:

  1. Nasal hairs. These help in trapping larger foreign particles.
  2. Nasal mucosal surface. This surface can provide a flushing action of various foreign particles with the flow of mucus.
  3. Mucous membrane. It is made up of an epithelial layer. It releases secrete a moist and sticky substance that is known as mucus. The mucus act as a physical barrier which traps the microbes. It lines and protects the more delicate cell layers below it and traps the debris as well as other substances including the microbes. Mucus secretions also have the antimicrobial peptides. So, it also helps in trapping the infectious agents or pathogens.
  4. The ciliated...

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