Testing Claims About Proportions. In Exercises 9–32, test the given claim. Identify the null hypothesis, alternative hypothesis, test statistic, P-value, or critical value(s), then state the conclusion about the null hypothesis, as well as the final conclusion that addresses the original claim. Use the P-value method unless your instructor specifies otherwise. Use the normal distribution as an approximation to the binomial distribution, as described in Part 1 of this section.

Overtime Rule in Football Before the overtime rule in the National Football League was changed in 2011, among 460 overtime games, 252 were won by the team that won the coin toss at the beginning of overtime. Using a 0.05 significance level, test the claim that the coin toss is fair in the sense that neither team has an advantage by winning it. Does the coin toss appear to be fair?

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