1 The Nature Of Chemistry 2 Chemical Compounds 3 Chemical Reactions 4 Energy And Chemical Reactions 5 Electron Configurations And The Periodic Table 6 Covalent Bonding 7 Molecular Structures 8 Properties Of Gases 9 Liquids, Solids, And Materials 10 Fuels, Organic Chemicals, And Polymers 11 Chemical Kinetics: Rates Of Reactions 12 Chemical Equilibrium 13 The Chemistry Of Solutes And Solutions 14 Acids And Bases 15 Additional Aqueous Equilibria 16 Thermodynamics: Directionality Of Chemical Reactions 17 Electrochemistry And Its Applications 18 Nuclear Chemistry 19 The Chemistry Of The Main-group Elements 20 Chemistry Of Selected Transition Elements And Coordination Compounds 4.1 The Nature Of Energy 4.2 Conservation Of Energy 4.3 Keeping Track Of Energy Transfers 4.4 Heat Capacity 4.5 Energy And Enthalpy 4.6 Reaction Enthalpies For Chemical Reactions 4.7 Where Does The Energy Come From? 4.8 Measuring Reaction Enthalpies: Calorimetry 4.9 Hess's Law 4.10 Standard Formation Enthalpies 4.11 Fuels For Society And Our Bodies Chapter Questions Problem 1QRT Problem 2QRT: For each situation, define a system and its surroundings, and give the direction of heat transfer:... Problem 3QRT: What is the value of the standard formation enthalpy for any element under standard conditions?
Problem 4QRT Problem 5QRT Problem 6QRT: Name two exothermic processes and two endothermic processes that you encountered recently and that... Problem 7QRT Problem 8QRT Problem 9QRT: (a) A 2-inch piece of two-layer chocolate cake with frosting provides 1670 kJ of energy. Calculate... Problem 10QRT Problem 11QRT: Melting lead requires 5.50 cal/g. Calculate how many joules are required to melt 1.00 lb (454 g)... Problem 12QRT Problem 13QRT Problem 14QRT Problem 15QRT Problem 16QRT: Analyze transfer of energy from one form to another in each situation.
In a Space Shuttle, hydrogen... Problem 17QRT Problem 18QRT: Suppose that you are studying kinetic energy of helium molecules: A helium weather balloon rises to... Problem 19QRT: Solid ammonium chloride is added to water in a beaker and dissolves. The beaker becomes cold to the... Problem 20QRT Problem 21QRT Problem 22QRT Problem 23QRT Problem 24QRT Problem 25QRT Problem 26QRT Problem 27QRT: The specific heat capacity of benzene, C6H6, is 1.74 J g1 K1. Calculate its molar heat capacity. Problem 28QRT: The specific heat capacity of carbon tetrachloride, CCl4, is 0.861 J g1 K1. Calculate its molar heat... Problem 29QRT Problem 30QRT Problem 31QRT: A piece of iron (400. g) is heated in a flame and then plunged into a beaker containing 1.00 kg... Problem 32QRT Problem 33QRT Problem 34QRT Problem 35QRT Problem 36QRT Problem 37QRT Problem 38QRT Problem 39QRT Problem 40QRT: Calculate the quantity of heating required to convert the water in four ice cubes (60.1 g each) from... Problem 41QRT Problem 42QRT Problem 43QRT Problem 44QRT Problem 45QRT Problem 46QRT: Calcium carbide, CaC2, is manufactured by reducing lime with carbon at high temperature. (The... Problem 47QRT Problem 48QRT Problem 49QRT Problem 50QRT: Given the thermochemical expression CaO(s) + 3C(s) CaC2(s) + CO(g) rH = 464.8 kJ/mol calculate the... Problem 51QRT Problem 52QRT Problem 53QRT: Isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane), one of the many hydro carbons that make up gasoline, burns in... Problem 54QRT Problem 55QRT: Gasohol, a mixture of gasoline and ethanol, C2H5OH, is used as automobile fuel. The alcohol releases... Problem 56QRT: White phosphorus, P4, ignites in air to produce P4O10.
When 3.56 g P4 is burned, 85.8 kJ of thermal... Problem 57QRT Problem 58QRT Problem 59QRT: Which molecule, HF, HCl, HBr, or HI, has the strongest chemical bond? Problem 60QRT: Which molecule, F2, Cl2, Br2, or I2, has the weakest chemical bond? Problem 61QRT: For the reactions of molecular hydrogen with fluorine and with chlorine: (a) Calculate the enthalpy... Problem 62QRT Problem 63QRT: A diamond can be considered a giant all-carbon super-molecule in which almost every carbon atom is... Problem 64QRT Problem 65QRT Problem 66QRT Problem 67QRT Problem 68QRT: A 0.692-g sample of glucose, C6H12O6, is burned in a constant-volume calorimeter. The temperature... Problem 69QRT: Benzoic acid, C7H6O2, occurs naturally in many berries. Suppose you burn 1.500 g of the compound in... Problem 70QRT Problem 71QRT Problem 72QRT Problem 73QRT: Three reactions very important to the semiconductor industry are
The reduction of silicon dioxide to... Problem 74QRT Problem 75QRT Problem 76QRT Problem 77QRT Problem 78QRT Problem 79QRT: We burn 3.47 g lithium in excess oxygen at constant atmospheric pressure to form Li2O. Then, we... Problem 80QRT Problem 81QRT Problem 82QRT Problem 83QRT: The reaction enthalpy for oxidation of styrene, C8H8, has been measured by calorimetry. C8H8() + 10... Problem 84QRT: Oxygen is not normally found in positive oxidation states, but when it is combined with fluorine in... Problem 85QRT: Iron can react with oxygen to give iron(III) oxide. If 5.58 g Fe is heated in pure O2 to give... Problem 86QRT: The formation of aluminum oxide from its elements is highly exothermic. If 2.70 g Al metal is burned... Problem 87QRT Problem 88QRT: If you want to convert 56.0 g ice (at 0 °C) to water at 75.0 °C, calculate how many grams of... Problem 89QRT Problem 90QRT Problem 91QRT Problem 92QRT Problem 93QRT Problem 94QRT Problem 95QRT Problem 96QRT Problem 97QRT Problem 98QRT Problem 99QRT Problem 100QRT Problem 101QRT Problem 102QRT Problem 103QRT Problem 104QRT Problem 105QRT Problem 106QRT Problem 107QRT: The specific heat capacity of copper is 0.385 J g1 C1, whereas it is 0.128 J g1 C1 for gold. Assume... Problem 108QRT: Consider this graph, which presents data for a 1.0-g mass of each of four substances. A, B, C, and... Problem 109QRT Problem 110QRT: The sketch shows two identical beakers with different volumes of water at the same temperature. Is... Problem 111QRT Problem 112QRT Problem 113QRT Problem 114QRT Problem 115QRT Problem 116QRT Problem 117QRT Problem 118QRT Problem 119QRT Problem 120QRT Problem 121QRT Problem 122QRT Problem 123QRT Problem 124QRT Problem 4.ACP Problem 4.BCP Problem 4.CCP Problem 4.DCP Problem 4.ECP Problem 4.FCP