Chapter 1.3, Problem 3LC

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8th Edition

Frederick J Gravetter + 1 other

ISBN: 9781133956570

Textbook Problem

Stephens, Atkins, and Kingston (2009) conducted an experiment in which participants were able to tolerate more pain when they shouted their favorite swear words over and over than when they shouted neutral words. Identify the independent and dependent variables for this study.

To determine

**To find:** The independent and dependent variables for the given study.

Explanation

**Given info:**

The researchers conducted an experiment in which participants were able to tolerate more pain when they shouted their favourite swear words over and over than when they shouted neutral words.

**Justification:**

The independent variable is the variable that is manipulated by the researcher. In behavioural research, the independent variable usually consists of the two (or more) treatment conditions to which subjects are exposed. The independent variable consists of the antecedent conditions that are manipulated prior to observing the dependent variable...

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