   Chapter 21, Problem 17PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Complete and balance the equations for the following reactions. [Assume an excess of oxygen for (d).] (a) Na(s) + Br2(ℓ) → (b) Mg(s) + O2(g) → (c) Al(s) + F2(g) → (d) C(s) + O2(g) →

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The complete balanced equation should be written for the given reaction.

Concept introduction: Main group elements are categorized as s-block and p-block elements. The s-block elements include metals belonging to group 1A and group 2A and elements from group 3A to 8A are referred to as p-block elements. The reaction of the metals with the nonmetals forms ionic compounds.

Ionic compounds are formed by the loss of electrons from the metal which is gained by the nonmetals. The metal gets positively charge and the non-metal attains a negative charge thus forming cations and anions respectively. They do so to attain a noble gas configuration or to attain stability.

MMn++ne

Here, by losing electrons metal M achieve the noble gas configuration. These electrons are gained by the non-metals X as shown below.

X+neXn

The metals of group 1A form +1 ions because the highest oxidation number is always equal to the group number of that element. Thus, the charge on group 1A elements is +1. Similarly, group 2A elements form +2 ions by losing two electrons and have an oxidation number of +2. The non-metal gains these electrons to form anions with 1 and 2 charge.

The compounds of non-metals with oxides and hydrides are covalent compounds. This is because non-metals are less electropositive and the difference in electronegativity between two elements is less than 2. If the difference in electronegativity is more than 2 then ionic compounds are formed.

Explanation

Sodium belongs to group 1A of periodic table and has an oxidation number of +1. Thus, it loses one electron to attain noble gas configuration.

NaNa++e

This electron is gained by bromine to form an anion with one negative charge. Bromine belongs to halogen family and it has the oxidation number of 1.

Br2+e_2Br

The number of electrons in both the equations is same. Thus an ionic compound is formed in which Sodium has +1 charge and bromine bears 1 charge

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The complete balanced equation should be written for the given reaction.

Concept introduction: Main group elements are categorized as s-block and p-block elements. The s-block elements include metals belonging to group 1A and group 2A and elements from group 3A to 8A are referred to as p-block elements. The reaction of the metals with the nonmetals forms ionic compounds.

Ionic compounds are formed by the loss of electrons from the metal which is gained by the nonmetals. The metal gets positively charge and the non-metal attains a negative charge thus forming cations and anions respectively. They do so to attain a noble gas configuration or to attain stability.

MMn++ne

Here, by losing electrons metal M achieve the noble gas configuration. These electrons are gained by the non-metals X as shown below.

X+neXn

The metals of group 1A form +1 ions because the highest oxidation number is always equal to the group number of that element. Thus, the charge on group 1A elements is +1. Similarly, group 2A elements form +2 ions by losing two electrons and have an oxidation number of +2. The non-metal gains these electrons to form anions with 1 and 2 charge.

The compounds of non-metals with oxides and hydrides are covalent compounds. This is because non-metals are less electropositive and the difference in electronegativity between two elements is less than 2. If the difference in electronegativity is more than 2 then ionic compounds are formed.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The complete balanced equation should be written for the given reaction.

Concept introduction: Main group elements are categorized as s-block and p-block elements. The s-block elements include metals belonging to group 1A and group 2A and elements from group 3A to 8A are referred to as p-block elements. The reaction of the metals with the nonmetals forms ionic compounds.

Ionic compounds are formed by the loss of electrons from the metal which is gained by the nonmetals. The metal gets positively charge and the non-metal attains a negative charge thus forming cations and anions respectively. They do so to attain a noble gas configuration or to attain stability.

MMn++ne

Here, by losing electrons metal M achieve the noble gas configuration. These electrons are gained by the non-metals X as shown below.

X+neXn

The metals of group 1A form +1 ions because the highest oxidation number is always equal to the group number of that element. Thus, the charge on group 1A elements is +1. Similarly, group 2A elements form +2 ions by losing two electrons and have an oxidation number of +2. The non-metal gains these electrons to form anions with 1 and 2 charge.

The compounds of non-metals with oxides and hydrides are covalent compounds. This is because non-metals are less electropositive and the difference in electronegativity between two elements is less than 2. If the difference in electronegativity is more than 2 then ionic compounds are formed.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The complete balanced equation should be written for the given reaction.

Concept introduction: Main group elements are categorized as s-block and p-block elements. The s-block elements include metals belonging to group 1A and group 2A and elements from group 3A to 8A are referred to as p-block elements. The reaction of the metals with the nonmetals forms ionic compounds.

Ionic compounds are formed by the loss of electrons from the metal which is gained by the nonmetals. The metal gets positively charge and the non-metal attains a negative charge thus forming cations and anions respectively. They do so to attain a noble gas configuration or to attain stability.

MMn++ne

Here, by losing electrons metal M achieve the noble gas configuration. These electrons are gained by the non-metals X as shown below.

X+neXn

The metals of group 1A form +1 ions because the highest oxidation number is always equal to the group number of that element. Thus, the charge on group 1A elements is +1. Similarly, group 2A elements form +2 ions by losing two electrons and have an oxidation number of +2. The non-metal gains these electrons to form anions with 1 and 2 charge.

The compounds of non-metals with oxides and hydrides are covalent compounds. This is because non-metals are less electropositive and the difference in electronegativity between two elements is less than 2. If the difference in electronegativity is more than 2 then ionic compounds are formed.

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