Chapter 2.3, Problem 56E

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8th Edition

James Stewart

ISBN: 9781305270343

Textbook Problem

In the theory of relativity, the Lorentz contraction formula

expresses the length *L* of an object as a function of its velocity *v* with respect to an observer, where *L _{0}* is the length of the object at rest and

To determine

**To find:** The limit of the function *L* as *v* approaches left-hand side of *c* and interpret the result; also explains why the left-hand limit is necessary.

Explanation

**Given:**

The Lorentz contraction formula, denoted by *L* is

Where, *L* represents the length of an object as a function of its velocity *v* with respect to an observer; *c* is the speed of light.

**Limit Laws:**

Suppose that *c* is a constant and the limits

Limit law 2:

Limit law 3:

Limit law 7:

Limit law 9: *n* is a positive integer.

Limit law 11: *n* is a positive integer, if *n* is even, assume that

**Evaluation:**

Obtain the limit of the function *L* as *v* approaches left-hand side of *c*.

Compute,

Sect-2.1 P-1ESect-2.1 P-2ESect-2.1 P-3ESect-2.1 P-4ESect-2.1 P-5ESect-2.1 P-6ESect-2.1 P-7ESect-2.1 P-8ESect-2.1 P-9ESect-2.2 P-1E

Sect-2.2 P-2ESect-2.2 P-3ESect-2.2 P-4ESect-2.2 P-5ESect-2.2 P-6ESect-2.2 P-7ESect-2.2 P-8ESect-2.2 P-9ESect-2.2 P-10ESect-2.2 P-11ESect-2.2 P-12ESect-2.2 P-13ESect-2.2 P-14ESect-2.2 P-15ESect-2.2 P-16ESect-2.2 P-17ESect-2.2 P-18ESect-2.2 P-19ESect-2.2 P-20ESect-2.2 P-21ESect-2.2 P-22ESect-2.2 P-23ESect-2.2 P-24ESect-2.2 P-25ESect-2.2 P-26ESect-2.2 P-27ESect-2.2 P-28ESect-2.2 P-29ESect-2.2 P-30ESect-2.2 P-31ESect-2.2 P-32ESect-2.2 P-33ESect-2.2 P-34ESect-2.2 P-35ESect-2.2 P-36ESect-2.2 P-37ESect-2.2 P-38ESect-2.2 P-39ESect-2.2 P-40ESect-2.2 P-41ESect-2.2 P-42ESect-2.2 P-43ESect-2.2 P-44ESect-2.2 P-45ESect-2.2 P-46ESect-2.2 P-47ESect-2.2 P-49ESect-2.2 P-50ESect-2.2 P-51ESect-2.2 P-52ESect-2.2 P-53ESect-2.2 P-54ESect-2.2 P-55ESect-2.3 P-1ESect-2.3 P-2ESect-2.3 P-3ESect-2.3 P-4ESect-2.3 P-5ESect-2.3 P-6ESect-2.3 P-7ESect-2.3 P-8ESect-2.3 P-9ESect-2.3 P-10ESect-2.3 P-11ESect-2.3 P-12ESect-2.3 P-13ESect-2.3 P-14ESect-2.3 P-15ESect-2.3 P-16ESect-2.3 P-17ESect-2.3 P-18ESect-2.3 P-19ESect-2.3 P-20ESect-2.3 P-21ESect-2.3 P-22ESect-2.3 P-23ESect-2.3 P-24ESect-2.3 P-25ESect-2.3 P-26ESect-2.3 P-27ESect-2.3 P-28ESect-2.3 P-29ESect-2.3 P-30ESect-2.3 P-31ESect-2.3 P-32ESect-2.3 P-33ESect-2.3 P-34ESect-2.3 P-35ESect-2.3 P-36ESect-2.3 P-37ESect-2.3 P-38ESect-2.3 P-39ESect-2.3 P-40ESect-2.3 P-41ESect-2.3 P-42ESect-2.3 P-43ESect-2.3 P-44ESect-2.3 P-45ESect-2.3 P-46ESect-2.3 P-47ESect-2.3 P-48ESect-2.3 P-49ESect-2.3 P-50ESect-2.3 P-51ESect-2.3 P-52ESect-2.3 P-53ESect-2.3 P-54ESect-2.3 P-55ESect-2.3 P-56ESect-2.3 P-57ESect-2.3 P-58ESect-2.3 P-59ESect-2.3 P-60ESect-2.3 P-61ESect-2.3 P-62ESect-2.3 P-63ESect-2.3 P-64ESect-2.3 P-65ESect-2.3 P-66ESect-2.4 P-1ESect-2.4 P-2ESect-2.4 P-3ESect-2.4 P-4ESect-2.4 P-5ESect-2.4 P-6ESect-2.4 P-7ESect-2.4 P-8ESect-2.4 P-9ESect-2.4 P-10ESect-2.4 P-11ESect-2.4 P-12ESect-2.4 P-13ESect-2.4 P-14ESect-2.4 P-15ESect-2.4 P-16ESect-2.4 P-17ESect-2.4 P-18ESect-2.4 P-19ESect-2.4 P-20ESect-2.4 P-21ESect-2.4 P-22ESect-2.4 P-23ESect-2.4 P-24ESect-2.4 P-25ESect-2.4 P-26ESect-2.4 P-27ESect-2.4 P-28ESect-2.4 P-29ESect-2.4 P-30ESect-2.4 P-31ESect-2.4 P-32ESect-2.4 P-33ESect-2.4 P-34ESect-2.4 P-36ESect-2.4 P-37ESect-2.4 P-38ESect-2.4 P-39ESect-2.4 P-40ESect-2.4 P-41ESect-2.4 P-42ESect-2.4 P-43ESect-2.4 P-44ESect-2.5 P-1ESect-2.5 P-2ESect-2.5 P-3ESect-2.5 P-4ESect-2.5 P-5ESect-2.5 P-6ESect-2.5 P-7ESect-2.5 P-8ESect-2.5 P-9ESect-2.5 P-10ESect-2.5 P-11ESect-2.5 P-12ESect-2.5 P-13ESect-2.5 P-14ESect-2.5 P-15ESect-2.5 P-16ESect-2.5 P-17ESect-2.5 P-18ESect-2.5 P-19ESect-2.5 P-20ESect-2.5 P-21ESect-2.5 P-22ESect-2.5 P-23ESect-2.5 P-24ESect-2.5 P-25ESect-2.5 P-26ESect-2.5 P-27ESect-2.5 P-28ESect-2.5 P-29ESect-2.5 P-30ESect-2.5 P-31ESect-2.5 P-32ESect-2.5 P-33ESect-2.5 P-34ESect-2.5 P-35ESect-2.5 P-36ESect-2.5 P-37ESect-2.5 P-38ESect-2.5 P-39ESect-2.5 P-40ESect-2.5 P-41ESect-2.5 P-42ESect-2.5 P-43ESect-2.5 P-44ESect-2.5 P-45ESect-2.5 P-46ESect-2.5 P-47ESect-2.5 P-48ESect-2.5 P-49ESect-2.5 P-50ESect-2.5 P-51ESect-2.5 P-52ESect-2.5 P-53ESect-2.5 P-54ESect-2.5 P-55ESect-2.5 P-56ESect-2.5 P-57ESect-2.5 P-58ESect-2.5 P-59ESect-2.5 P-60ESect-2.5 P-61ESect-2.5 P-62ESect-2.5 P-63ESect-2.5 P-64ESect-2.5 P-65ESect-2.5 P-66ESect-2.5 P-67ESect-2.5 P-68ESect-2.5 P-69ESect-2.5 P-70ESect-2.5 P-71ESect-2.5 P-72ESect-2.6 P-1ESect-2.6 P-2ESect-2.6 P-3ESect-2.6 P-4ESect-2.6 P-5ESect-2.6 P-6ESect-2.6 P-7ESect-2.6 P-8ESect-2.6 P-9ESect-2.6 P-10ESect-2.6 P-11ESect-2.6 P-12ESect-2.6 P-13ESect-2.6 P-14ESect-2.6 P-15ESect-2.6 P-16ESect-2.6 P-17ESect-2.6 P-18ESect-2.6 P-19ESect-2.6 P-20ESect-2.6 P-21ESect-2.6 P-22ESect-2.6 P-23ESect-2.6 P-24ESect-2.6 P-25ESect-2.6 P-26ESect-2.6 P-27ESect-2.6 P-28ESect-2.6 P-29ESect-2.6 P-30ESect-2.6 P-31ESect-2.6 P-32ESect-2.6 P-33ESect-2.6 P-34ESect-2.6 P-35ESect-2.6 P-36ESect-2.6 P-37ESect-2.6 P-38ESect-2.6 P-39ESect-2.6 P-40ESect-2.6 P-41ESect-2.6 P-42ESect-2.6 P-43ESect-2.6 P-44ESect-2.6 P-45ESect-2.6 P-46ESect-2.6 P-47ESect-2.6 P-48ESect-2.6 P-49ESect-2.6 P-50ESect-2.6 P-51ESect-2.6 P-52ESect-2.6 P-53ESect-2.6 P-54ESect-2.6 P-55ESect-2.6 P-56ESect-2.6 P-57ESect-2.6 P-58ESect-2.6 P-59ESect-2.6 P-60ESect-2.6 P-61ESect-2.6 P-62ESect-2.6 P-63ESect-2.6 P-64ESect-2.6 P-65ESect-2.6 P-66ESect-2.6 P-67ESect-2.6 P-68ESect-2.6 P-69ESect-2.6 P-70ESect-2.6 P-71ESect-2.6 P-72ESect-2.6 P-73ESect-2.6 P-74ESect-2.6 P-75ESect-2.6 P-76ESect-2.6 P-77ESect-2.6 P-78ESect-2.6 P-79ESect-2.6 P-80ESect-2.6 P-81ESect-2.7 P-1ESect-2.7 P-2ESect-2.7 P-3ESect-2.7 P-4ESect-2.7 P-5ESect-2.7 P-6ESect-2.7 P-7ESect-2.7 P-8ESect-2.7 P-9ESect-2.7 P-10ESect-2.7 P-11ESect-2.7 P-12ESect-2.7 P-13ESect-2.7 P-14ESect-2.7 P-15ESect-2.7 P-16ESect-2.7 P-17ESect-2.7 P-18ESect-2.7 P-19ESect-2.7 P-20ESect-2.7 P-21ESect-2.7 P-22ESect-2.7 P-23ESect-2.7 P-24ESect-2.7 P-25ESect-2.7 P-26ESect-2.7 P-27ESect-2.7 P-28ESect-2.7 P-29ESect-2.7 P-30ESect-2.7 P-31ESect-2.7 P-32ESect-2.7 P-33ESect-2.7 P-34ESect-2.7 P-35ESect-2.7 P-36ESect-2.7 P-37ESect-2.7 P-38ESect-2.7 P-39ESect-2.7 P-40ESect-2.7 P-41ESect-2.7 P-42ESect-2.7 P-43ESect-2.7 P-44ESect-2.7 P-45ESect-2.7 P-46ESect-2.7 P-47ESect-2.7 P-48ESect-2.7 P-49ESect-2.7 P-50ESect-2.7 P-51ESect-2.7 P-53ESect-2.7 P-54ESect-2.7 P-55ESect-2.7 P-56ESect-2.7 P-57ESect-2.7 P-58ESect-2.7 P-59ESect-2.7 P-60ESect-2.7 P-61ESect-2.8 P-1ESect-2.8 P-2ESect-2.8 P-3ESect-2.8 P-4ESect-2.8 P-5ESect-2.8 P-6ESect-2.8 P-7ESect-2.8 P-8ESect-2.8 P-9ESect-2.8 P-10ESect-2.8 P-11ESect-2.8 P-12ESect-2.8 P-13ESect-2.8 P-14ESect-2.8 P-15ESect-2.8 P-16ESect-2.8 P-17ESect-2.8 P-18ESect-2.8 P-19ESect-2.8 P-20ESect-2.8 P-21ESect-2.8 P-22ESect-2.8 P-23ESect-2.8 P-24ESect-2.8 P-25ESect-2.8 P-26ESect-2.8 P-27ESect-2.8 P-28ESect-2.8 P-29ESect-2.8 P-30ESect-2.8 P-31ESect-2.8 P-32ESect-2.8 P-33ESect-2.8 P-34ESect-2.8 P-35ESect-2.8 P-36ESect-2.8 P-37ESect-2.8 P-38ESect-2.8 P-39ESect-2.8 P-40ESect-2.8 P-41ESect-2.8 P-42ESect-2.8 P-43ESect-2.8 P-44ESect-2.8 P-45ESect-2.8 P-46ESect-2.8 P-47ESect-2.8 P-48ESect-2.8 P-49ESect-2.8 P-50ESect-2.8 P-51ESect-2.8 P-52ESect-2.8 P-53ESect-2.8 P-54ESect-2.8 P-55ESect-2.8 P-56ESect-2.8 P-57ESect-2.8 P-58ESect-2.8 P-59ESect-2.8 P-60ESect-2.8 P-61ESect-2.8 P-62ESect-2.8 P-63ESect-2.8 P-64ESect-2.8 P-65ESect-2.8 P-66ESect-2.8 P-67ECh-2 P-1RCCCh-2 P-2RCCCh-2 P-3RCCCh-2 P-4RCCCh-2 P-5RCCCh-2 P-6RCCCh-2 P-7RCCCh-2 P-8RCCCh-2 P-9RCCCh-2 P-10RCCCh-2 P-11RCCCh-2 P-12RCCCh-2 P-13RCCCh-2 P-14RCCCh-2 P-15RCCCh-2 P-16RCCCh-2 P-1RQCh-2 P-2RQCh-2 P-3RQCh-2 P-4RQCh-2 P-5RQCh-2 P-6RQCh-2 P-7RQCh-2 P-8RQCh-2 P-9RQCh-2 P-10RQCh-2 P-11RQCh-2 P-12RQCh-2 P-13RQCh-2 P-14RQCh-2 P-15RQCh-2 P-16RQCh-2 P-17RQCh-2 P-18RQCh-2 P-19RQCh-2 P-20RQCh-2 P-21RQCh-2 P-22RQCh-2 P-23RQCh-2 P-24RQCh-2 P-25RQCh-2 P-26RQCh-2 P-1RECh-2 P-2RECh-2 P-3RECh-2 P-4RECh-2 P-5RECh-2 P-6RECh-2 P-7RECh-2 P-8RECh-2 P-9RECh-2 P-10RECh-2 P-11RECh-2 P-12RECh-2 P-13RECh-2 P-14RECh-2 P-15RECh-2 P-16RECh-2 P-17RECh-2 P-18RECh-2 P-19RECh-2 P-20RECh-2 P-21RECh-2 P-22RECh-2 P-23RECh-2 P-24RECh-2 P-25RECh-2 P-26RECh-2 P-27RECh-2 P-28RECh-2 P-29RECh-2 P-30RECh-2 P-31RECh-2 P-32RECh-2 P-33RECh-2 P-34RECh-2 P-35RECh-2 P-36RECh-2 P-37RECh-2 P-38RECh-2 P-39RECh-2 P-40RECh-2 P-41RECh-2 P-42RECh-2 P-43RECh-2 P-44RECh-2 P-45RECh-2 P-46RECh-2 P-47RECh-2 P-48RECh-2 P-49RECh-2 P-50RECh-2 P-51RECh-2 P-52RECh-2 P-53RECh-2 P-54RECh-2 P-1PCh-2 P-2PCh-2 P-3PCh-2 P-4PCh-2 P-5PCh-2 P-6PCh-2 P-7PCh-2 P-8PCh-2 P-9PCh-2 P-10PCh-2 P-11PCh-2 P-12PCh-2 P-13PCh-2 P-14P

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