Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Using spdf notation, give the electron configuration of vanadium, V, an element found in some brown and red algae and some toadstools.

Interpretation Introduction


The vanadium (V) electronic configuration should be derived using its (s, p, d, f) orbital notation box method.

Concept Introduction:

Basic properties of vanadium (V): This element presence of d-block in 3d serious and group-5, 4th period position in periodic table. Its atomic number 23, it is a hard, silvery grey, ductile, and malleable transition metal. The elemental metal is rarely found in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer (passivation) somewhat stabilizes the free metal against further oxidation.

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The important there rules for electronic configuration given below:

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.


Electronic configuration of simple Vanadium (V) atom filling method is shown below.

According to periodic table, the Vanadium (V) atom and its atomic number (23), it is the 23th element in the third period (n=4) and it is in the (Group-5) of the d-block elements.

Electron filling method of vanadium atom (V):

  1. 1. The (s, p, d, f) and orbital box notations, assign the (23) electrons for vanadium (V) to orbitals based on the order of filling.
  2. 2. The first (18) electrons are occupying 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p orbitals and reaming 4 four electros filling in 3d and 4s orbital.
  3. 3. The noble gas notation: The first (18) electrons are identified by the symbol of the Argon (Ar), it is a one of noble gas in periodic table. The remaining 4 electrons are assigning to the 3d and 4s sub-shells. Hence the Hund’s rule is followed in the box notation.

  Atomicnumberofvanadium(V)=23Complete (spdf)notationof(V)=1s22s22p63s23p63d34s2Orbital filling method=1s22s22p63s23p6 <

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