Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Which of the homonuclear, diatomic molecules of the second-period elements (from Li2 to Ne2) are paramagnetic? Which have a bond order of 1? Which have a bond order of 2? Which diatomic molecule has the highest bond order?

Interpretation Introduction


The diatomic molecules of the second-period elements which are paramagnetic, which have bond order of 1and2 and which have the highest bond order has to be calculated.

Concept Introduction:

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

Bond order: The bond order has defined as the net number of bonding electrons pairs linking a pair of atoms. This same concept can be applied directly to molecular orbital theory, but not bond order is defined as.


Paramagnetic: The Paramagnetic properties are due to the presence of some unpaired electrons, and from the realignment of the electron paths caused by the external magnetic field.

Diamagnetic: It indicates that a substance contains no unpaired electrons and thus is not attract to a magnetic field.      


Electronic configuration: It is used to denote the distribution of electrons placed over orbitals that present in the atom.

  • The electronic configuration of Li2:


The molecule is dia magnetic.

Bond order of Lithium molecule

The Li atom four electrons in bonding orbital and two electrons available in antibonding electron so it bond order is one.


  • The electronic configuration of Be2:


Bond order of Be2molecule


The molecule don’t exist.

  • The electronic configuration of B2:


The molecule has un paired electrons and it is para magnetic.

Bond order of Boron B2molecule


  • The electronic configuration of C2:


The molecule is dia magnetic.

Bond order of Carbon C2molecule


  • The electronic configuration of N2:


The molecule is dia magnetic

Calculation method of bond order of nitrogen molecule

The nitrogen (N2) atoms have eight electrons available in bonding molecular orbitals and two electrons are available in antibonding molecular orbitals so this bond order has shown below. 


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