2.0 Learning And Assessment ( Final )

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2.1 Introduction
Because there is a learning, there is an assessment. Learning is important and assessment is a integral part of it. In other words, if learning does not take place there is nothing to assess. Therefore, we need to know how students learn in order to ensure that assessment used to assess them is appropriately matched for the underpinning of how learning takes place (Black and Wiliam, 1998; Broadfoot, et al., 1991; Brown, S., 2004-05; Pryor and Crossouard, 2008; Ecclestone, 2005).
Garfield, (1994) aligns herself to this notion of assessment. She argues that if the collected information by assessment is consistent with learning objectives and is used appropriately to inform instruction, it can enhance students‘ learning as well as document it furthermore, she adds that assessment, rather than being an activity separate from instruction, is now being viewed as an integral part of teaching and learning and not just the climax of instruction.
The main purpose of assessment is to measure or evaluate learning (Harlen, 2006).Therefore, this chapter is going to look first of all at the basic principles of how students learn which will may have a material bearing on how we conduct assessments. In so doing, the first focus will be on the major theories of learning from the twentieth century where they are relevant to assessment. These theories will be presented in order to provide a framework for understanding the relationship

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