PART II: LITERATURE REVIEW AND DISCUSSION
According to Levine (2016), Ultra-Orthodox Jewish culture contains varying sects, Hasidic/Yeshivas is considered a Jewish religious sect which originated in the Ukraine and Lithuania as a spiritual movement of Judaism which spread throughout Eastern Europe during the eighteenth century. Hasidic Immigrants have settled in the United States, United Kingdom and Israel. Disciples of its originator Ba 'al Shem Tov have since disseminated it into sects. The cultural intersectionality in focus is current Hasidism, an Ultra-Orthodox sect of Judaism which preserves its religious conservatism and social isolation from mainstream society. (Levine, 2016) Ultra-Orthodox Jewish culture maintains historical customs and likens to the Amish culture from outside observation, their community and family lives have seemingly stopped in time. They are recognizable by their differential style with characteristics reminiscent of the eighteenth and nineteenth century. The males adorn black coats and Cossack-looking hats; their beards are full with distinct side curls called peyots which adhere to the Torah’s instruction to not cut the corners of one’s head. Different sects of Ultra-Orthodox Jews vary the style of curls distinguishing one group from another. The women wear modest clothing which covers their skin from neck to ankles and forearms and wears wigs that cover their shaven or closely cut heads. Modesty is of the utmost importance;
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1 Id-According to the Old Testament, what massacre took place shortly after Moses received the 10 Commandments and why did it take place? Briefly list the main events in Moses’ life according to the Old Testament. Do any Egyptian sources confirm the events narrated in the Old Testament?
Historically, there is no such thing as Orthodoxy (Kress, 2014). This term is used primarily in North America. The specific term “Orthodox Judaism” has a recent origin and is used specifically to differentiate the followers of more traditionally practicing Jews from the more Liberal Jewish movements (Kress, 2014). The so-called ultra-Orthodox may be the most recognizable Jews due to their distinctive garb (Wertheimer, 2014). Many of the people from this denomination live in densely populated enclaves, speaking Yiddish among themselves, and consciously reject much of the Western culture. They arrange their family lives, daily routines, finances, and politics in a manner entirely different from other Jewish denominations (Wertheimer, 2014). The largest following of the ultra-Orthodox consist of Hasidism. Orthodox Judaism believes that both the Written and Oral Torah are of divine origin, thereby representing the
As displayed by Revealing World Religions, Judaism contains many sects, and Hasidic and Reform Jews are perhaps the most contrasting. Reform Jews use their religion as a segway to adapt traditional beliefs to today’s world. Their form of Judaism serves as a middle ground between modernism and tradition. Hasidic Jews are entirely different in that they utilize their religion as a means by which to form a direct connection to God. This is done by the strict observance of Jewish laws which as a result segregate them from modern life.
Reform and Orthodox Jews both believe in the Torah; however their approach to it and the implications that come from it is the primary difference between both. An Orthodox Jew is one who is faithful to traditional Judaism’s principles and practices, including the belief in one God, daily synagogue presence and a strict adherence of the Sabbath and other holy days, religious festivities, and dietary commandments (Morris, 2015). In accordance with Jewish law, Orthodox Jews also maintain a historic comprehension of their faith by acknowledging that they are considered Jewish if born to a Jewish mother or by religious conversion if they accept the Torah and Halakha to be law. In Jewish law, the Halakha represents the will of God, as directly or as close to as possible. The written and oral law of the Torah was dictated by God to Moses on Mount Sinai (Shalev,
For my ethnographic fieldwork, I decided to do my research on the Jewish culture. I interviewed a friend of mine at her house, which is the field site I decided to work in. To protect her identity I changed her name to Rebecca. As soon as I got to her house I notice there was a small piece of metal on the side of her doorpost with hebrew text written on it. I enter the house and she greeted me and took me to her living room.In her living room I noticed she had a tray of bite size cookies for us and a Snapple drink. The cookies were sweet and they did not have strong odor. My friend wore black slacks a white blouse and a star necklace around her neck. After a while, her brother and father came in and I noticed they had a little cap on the top of their heads. I asked her questions about her religion and culture.
The practices of Hasidic sects vary significantly, from the Satmar sect in Williamsburg to the Lubavitcher sect in Crown Heights spanning to Vizhnitz in Monsey, and even throughout households, the Skverer sect in New Square
Early modern Jewish history is filled with depth and knowledge that captivated and cultivated the religion into what it would become. An important part of the history were the ideologies and philosophies of Moses Mendelssohn. Considered the first modern Jewish philosopher and a shaper of Judaism, Mendelssohn was the start of what would become the Jewish Enlightenment. Being the first person to translate the Bible from Hebrew to German, he opened up the door for Jews to rediscover and enhance their knowledge. A writer and philosopher, several of Mendelssohn's writings were highly successful and considered a herald to a new way of thinking. While many of his writings received praise from people of different parts, critiques arose, including
Have you ever noticed that when people talk of Jews, at least in a protestant church, that the Israelite legalism, rituals, dress and hair standards are the first things to mind? The topic of Judaism may come with stereotypical opinions and “Christian Judgement” that are without merit or understanding. Judaism, by a Christian worldview, had to change after Pentecost, since the animal sacrifice to atone for sin Christ completed on the Cross. However, Judaism does not accept this truth of Christ and His work on the cross, but Judaism remains in the world. So, what was this change in Judaism and when did it take place? There have been numerous fluctuations within Judaism, only the theme constructed in this essay has its foundations around the most important facet of Judaism- the Temple. With the Temple in the forefront of this essay, we will discuss the modifications that Judaism went through, at what time, different perspectives that the destruction of the Temple had, and how the Christian sect views these vagaries. The Temple destruction of A.D. 70 converted the Jewish faith in its singular fashion, while, at the same point, the Jewish faith never had a total change by always changing throughout time.
Throughout the history of the world, the Jewish people have been persecuted and oppressed because of their religious beliefs and faith. Many groups of people have made Jews their scapegoat. Jews have suffered from years of intolerance because people have not understood what the religion really means. They do not understand where and why the religion began, nor the customs of it's people. For one to understand the great hardships, triumphs, and history of the Jewish people one must open-mindedly peruse a greater knowledge of the Jewish people and faith.
Hasidic Judaism is a branch of Orthodox Judaism established in Eastern Europe during the 1800’s that put spirituality and a connection with God through mysticism at the forefront of its beliefs. In order to understand Hasidic Judaism, one must understand that Judaism is not only a religion; it is also a philosophy and a way of life for the Jewish people. One of the oldest monotheistic religions, Judaism has evolved over the years since the time of the founding fathers. Like any culture or religion, however, Jews have never been without conflict or disagreement amongst its people. Schisms amongst Jews over long periods of time have led to a branching out of sects and Jewish institutions. What led to the separation of denominations within
In the Orthodox Jewish tradition women are required to dress in modest skirts or dresses, where their legs, necks, and elbows cannot be seen in public. For that reason, they are expected to wear sleeves at least to the elbow, blouses or dresses with necklines that do not expose any cleavage and skirts that cover the knees when seated. This is not because a women’s body is sinful but rather that men are weak, and if they would see too much of a women’s skin it would arouse desires and distract them (Women in North America Judaism). It is also consider immodest for married women to have uncovered hair in front of men other than her husband, not because women’s hair is considered something evil, but that is considered a beautiful thing and should be shown only to a husband that women loves. Also, covering their hair is a part of “tzniut”, a spiritual path of modesty and
Next is the Reform Judaism. It’s originated in 19th century. This branch of Judaism stresses giving up laws that are separate from modern cultures like kashrut/ kosher, which are dietary laws. They emphasize on the ethical teaching of the Torah, and dietary laws are optional observances. They reject all forms of gender separation and differentiation. They have the first ordained women as rabbis and they adopted the Bat Mitzvah. Their women can study Torah and Talmud. They use the science to study Torah/instruction and teaching. They worship and read Torah out loud in the Temple of Friday night. They have no Talmudie restriction on Sabbath. Talmud is a commentary on the laws of the Torah. For instance, they can drive the car if they
I learned a lot of facts about Judaism that I had previously been ignorant to. I had no idea that we (Christians & Jews) maintained the same bible (The Old Testament) but that we interpreted certain events differently, such as Adam and Eve. “In Judaism, each and every human being is free to choose good or evil because each person stands before God in the same relationship that Adam and Eve did” (Esposito 77). I was unaware that Judaism did not believe in “original sin.” I had no knowledge of the fact that Jews did not believe that Christ was resurrected from the dead. I found it interesting how Jews have split into separate groups – Reform Jews, who believe that Judaism is a cultural inheritance and that neither the laws nor beliefs are
Judaism is a religion quite similar to Christianity and Islam. Followers of Judaism worship one God and are guided by the teachings of the Bible. They follow the Torah most of all. The followers can be separated into two different groups, which are secularists and fundamentalists. Jewish people that can be categorized as secularist are modern people, with their views and beliefs having adapted to the modern world. Fundamentalists are Jewish people who are called ultra-orthodox and are still clinging to premodern beliefs and values. This leads to a large divide involving human rights and responsibilities.
Making sure utensils do not get mix together when making meat or dairy products is also important in the Jewish culture. While the Jewish diet is very strict in its details, the personal appearance has somewhat looser constraints. Most Jewish people dress in what is considered normal attire (such as jeans and regular shirts). However, when attending religious services, men are required to war a “kippah” (head covering), and women must wear long skirts ("Culture and Customs"). As can be seen, while the diet of the Jewish culture may hold stricter requirements, the dress of the culture is almost equivalent to that of the Western society.