A Research Study On Breast Cancer

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Introduction Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of high mortality and morbidity in women population worldwide. Up to date, no effective breast cancer treatment has been developed and this has motivated academic scientists for the quest for alternative drugs and the discovery of drug targets. Increasing evidence suggests that carotenoids, which are micronutrients in fruit and vegetables, reduce breast cancer risk [1]. Previous findings suggest a protective role of α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin and lycopene in breast cancer risk [2, 3]. Lycopene, a known major carotenoid detected in human plasma, is known to hold the most robust anticancer and chemopreventive properties as demonstrated in clinical trials and animal models of various cancers including mammary cancer, prostate cancer [4] and brain cancer. In vitro and in vivo studies have reported that lycopene prevents the growth of different cancer cells of different organs and inhibits chemically induced carcinogenesis in animal models. Although the excellent antioxidant property of lycopene is most likely the basis for its preventive role toward cancer, the direct anticancer activities of lycopene through multiple mechanisms are disclosed, including regulation of growth factor signaling, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, and changes in antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes. The anti-inflammatory activity of lycopene is also considered as an important determinant that suppresses the
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