Breast Cancer : The Incidence Rate Of Any Type Of Cancer

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Breast cancer (BRCA) is associated with the highest mortality rate of any type of cancer besides that of the lung (American Cancer Society, 2013). BRCA occurs most commonly in women over the age of 40, with an estimated global incidence of 1.6 million cases in 2010. An estimated 39,000 women died from BRCA alone in 2013 (American Cancer Society, 2013). BRCA is responsible for the largest portion of spending on cancer-related care in the United States; an estimated $16.5 billion of cancer-related spending went towards BRCA in 2010 (Mariotto, Robin Yabroff, Shao, Feuer, & Brown, 2011). Although the prevalence, mortality, and costs associated with BRCA are quite high, recent advances in screening and treatment have increased long term …show more content…

Common side effects of chemotherapy include: nausea and vomiting, hair loss, appetite loss, pain, fatigue, depression, anxiety, problems with concentration and memory, and sleep disturbances, among others (American Cancer Society, 2013). These side effects take a toll on patients, and contribute significantly to decreased QOL, even after finishing treatment (McDonald et al., 2010). Systemic inflammation, resulting from both the disease process and treatment with chemotherapy, has been suggested as an underlying factor contributing to the observed side effects. Research into these inflammatory processes appears to support this notion (Bower et al., 2011; Pomykala, Ganz, et al., 2013).
Overview of Inflammation
When tissue injury occurs, a network of chemical signals activate a host response which is designed to protect and heal the damaged tissues (i.e. inflammation) (Coussens & Werb, 2002). This process involves the activation and migration of leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, and eosinophils) to the site of damage as well as recruitment of tissue mast cells (Coussens & Werb, 2002). Additionally, this inflammatory response involves migration of macrophage progenitors, which travel through the venous system to the site of injury. This migratory process is directed to the site of tissue damage by a host of chemotactic factors, among these are cytokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and

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