My goal as a criminal justice student is to explore the ways a social community, social norms and ethics affect the criminal justice community within that society. What interests me most is the relationship between race and income levels and the involvement of the criminal justice system. The research topic, I decided to study is the relationship between academic success and juvenile delinquency. Answering the question does poor academic performance increase the likelihood of juvenile delinquency? I see my research as part of a broader effort in the social sciences and criminal justice sector to study the interactions linking education, cultural and or self -identity, and economic development within our society. I aim to understand if the self-esteem, and self-worth for a juvenile dependent on such factors as academic success, economic/ family wealth, and family perceptions and personal views on education and criminal involvement. Criminologists argue that social bonds to adult institutions such as the family help support informal social control which can reduce the likelihood of criminal behavior in adulthood. For most individuals, immediate family members are the first socializing forces in their lives. Which, in turn, helps to teach and enforce respect for self, and others, compassion, empathy, controlling of unacceptable behaviors and delaying of gratification. On the other hand, a child can also learn aggressive, violent, and deviant behaviors from their family circle.
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Social control/bond theory was developed by Travis Hirschi in1969. The social control approach is one of the three major sociological perspectives in understanding crime in our contemporary criminology. The theory holds that individuals will break the law as a result of the breakdown of the social bonds (Akers & Sellers, 2004, p. 16). Control theorists believe that an individual conformity to societal social values and rules produced by socialization and maintained through social ties to the people and institutions. The social bond may include family attachment, an individual commitment to social norms or institutions like school, employment, churches and mosques. The key elements of the social bonds theory are an attachment to other individuals in the society and the desire to remain committed to following rules. In addition, an individual involvement in typical social behaviours as well as one 's belief or the value systems a person ascribes. According to the theory, crime and delinquency will result when a person bond to society is weak or lose (Demuth & Brown, 2004, p.65). Moreover, as social bonds increase in strength, individual costs of crime increases as well and this ultimately act as a barrier for committing a crime.
Generally, families are considered to be the primary factors in socialization. The impact of family in juvenile delinquency has been theorized and investigated for many decades being that crime commonly runs in families. Parental criminality is one of the most vigorous and most consistent conjectures of a child's delinquency (Greene & Gabbidon, 2009, p. 281).
This research is important because understanding what makes a juvenile delinquent is necessary to know. Parents can be educated on what is affecting their teen to contribute to delinquent behavior. The family structure has been avoided by many citizens. Educating the public on the family structure can make a different in a teen’s life.
That being said, the biggest issue within the parent-child relationship in regards to violence is the “normalizing of isolation”. This term addresses parents ignorance towards their child’s actions. For the betterment of society, all parents need to gain a better understanding of their child’s development in order to detect any red flags that may persist within their youth. These red flags are anything that could lead the parent to believe that their child is leading down the path of being antisocial, because there has been a strong correlation in that many mass shooters in the past have suffered from being antisocial. If a child does not develop a strong and social relationship with their parents it can eventually lead them to having a tougher time responding to certain circumstances they will eventually face when they grow older, as they will be obligated to make decisions for themselves. “The mother's strong affectionate attachment to her child is the child's best buffer against a life of crime.” (Fagan). Obviously, it is difficult to recognize or predict which people will commit an act of mass violence in the future, but there are definitely many ways parents could prevent their children from potentially being the ones to do so.
Research suggests that reducing the rate of reoccurring offenses for juvenile offenders is directly related to understanding the factors that increase the recidivism rates for this age group: the origins of the offenders, the behavior problems and causes, the adjudication process, and the type of offense committed.
When it comes to juvenile delinquency an adolescent personality is usually impacted from different factors such as early child hood experiences of witnessing a crime, seeing a violent act, being the victim of a crime, or being around others or family who engaged in criminal activity, these factors can either create an adolescent with a positive or negative attitude, or an anti-social behavior which could create a path for a delinquent behavior (Wilson, p. 34). A study has shown that family interactions accounts for about 40 percent of the cause of an adolescent with an anti-social behavior, the study also shown that aggressiveness which is a common trait of adolescent who engage in delinquent acts is usually created from peer influences (Wilson, p. 34).
According to Hirschi there are four individual bonds a person has to conventional society. Attachment is the first of these. It is important to have someone that is always there for you, for children this often means having an attachment with a parent or parents. As kids age and their bonds to society weaken and criminal activity flourishes. As presented in figure 1., with some time stronger attachments form and criminal activity becomes less popular. Involvement with conventional society is another important bond. Having a place of acceptance such as a family environment, religious institution, school, and community organizations can be very
Juvenile delinquency is a social issue in the United States today. Juvenile delinquency, is when “a violation of the law is committed by a juvenile and is not punishable by death or life imprisonment” (Juvenile Delinquency). The juvenile system is different from the adult system in many way and most juvenile delinquents are from the age of ten to the age of seventeen (Juvenile Delinquent). Once the delinquent or anyone is at the age of eighteen, they are considered to be an adult. Therefore, in the justice system they are tried as an adult. There are many different reasons why a child would commit crime, such as mental and physical factors, peer influence, home conditions, neighborhood environment and school conditions. Teens are greatly influenced by the interactions and surroundings they are around. Their behaviors can result from the parent and/or their peer influences. Parents play a great role in the child’s life and a teen’s peers also play a strong role in how the teen behaves when the parents are not insight. This research will examine links between the social environment of teens and how it influences the teens actions and behavior which leads them to commit an offense.
This paper will be going over social learning theory and how it affects juveniles and its relation to Juvenal delinquency. Social learning theory states that learning social behaviors happens through observation and learning from others. This paper will be explaining how family, friends, and socialization affect the child's behaviors in relation to juvenile delinquency. Also going over the strengths and weaknesses of the social learning theory.
The first factor that often leads to juvenile delinquency involves the child’s social influences within their communities. The community of individuals that a child is normally around on a normal basis includes family, friends, and neighbors. Depending on the overall quality of the relationship that the child has with each member of their community, they maybe more or less inclined to commit crimes. According to the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, juveniles who experience abuse or neglect from any member of their community may be more inclined to become deviant (n.d.). For example, if a father abuses his child, the odds of the child’s willing to resort to deviance becomes significantly higher than a father who treats his son like a normal parent. Another way a child can be socially exposed to deviance is through example. If a parent is always in a run with law enforcement on a constant basis, that child may grow up to be just like them simply because that is how they were raised. The third and final social influence comes outside of the family circle where the actions that a child’s friends partake in can also determine whether or not the child will pursue acts of deviance. The influence of a friend’s actions can either be positive or negative depending on the values of the friend. For instance, say a child named Johnny hangs around a group of troublemakers who always wreck havoc, smoke joints, and talk trash about everyone. This kind of relationship between Johnny and his friends can lead Johnny to becoming just like the troublemakers because of peer pressure.
Social Control Theory presents the idea that all humans maintain an inclination to act in a violent manner and the sole thing that prevents an individual from conceding to that inclination is the social connection they have with others; when this connection is hindered by abuse or neglect, the child is driven toward his or her impulse of violence and crime (Currie and Tekin 4). The last theory, Social-Psychological Strain Theory, suggests that the stress that is caused by abuse also has a role in driving an individual towards criminal activity (Currie and Tekin 4).
For morals to be effectively instilled in a human, it must begin in infancy. Therefore, the family structure is vital in moral development. Morality is learned through socialization and the examples people around them set in their own daily life. Children learn how to make moral judgements in difficult situations from their parents, even if their judgements seem to lack moral intelligence (McIsaac). Many families are not ideal, nor do they set a good example for the children growing up in them. Domestic violence, drug use, drug dealing, or fraudulent behavior observed by the maturing child does not go unnoticed. These decisions are taken "to heart" and remembered when the child is faced with a similar situation. On the other hand, children may push away their families, and the negative example set and turn to gangs. In a gang, they feel they have sufficient support and love. Unfortunately, violent crime and severe criminal behavior of all kinds accompany a gang environment. The lack of morals in a family structure
Another factor that can influence crime is socialization, which is the process of learning how to properly behave. If someone grew up having a distant relationship with their parents, they might be more likely to commit a crime. A parent is a child’s first and best teacher. A good parent should teach their child right
Juvenile offending is a major problem in society. Understanding the risk factors that contribute to the increased likelihood of a juvenile to engage in delinquency is important. There are many factors that can influence the increased risk of juvenile delinquency. These factors include poverty, low socioeconomic status, age (Jarjoura, Triplett, & Brinker, 2002), race, gender (Lucero, Barret, & Jensen, 2015), education (Lucero, Barret, & Jensen, 2015; Jarjoura, 1993), and family structure (Anderson, 2002; Kierkus & Hewitt, 2009). It is important to examine if some risk factors can contribute more than others and to what extent they interact with one another. This paper will discuss three important risk factors that contribute to the likelihood of juveniles engaging in deviant acts. The three risk factors discussed are poverty, family structure, and educational attainment. In addition, this paper will demonstrate how these three risk factors interact with one another, resulting in a higher propensity for involvement in juvenile delinquency.