Identity development is a fluid process throughout the human life cycle. Seemingly, adolescence, development after the age of 12 through young adulthood, is the most difficult transitive period in the life cycle. Adolescence is a critical time for a human, because it is the period when various personal roles are examined and one tries to assimilate these roles into a perception of self. Adolescents are struggling to identify different areas in their life such as religious preferences, sexuality, future careers, and hobbies. According to Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman (2013):
Arriving at answers to such questions is among the most important tasks people face in life. Without answers, a person will not be prepared to make such major…show more content… Each theory emphasizes different roles in human life development.
Presentation of the Seminal Points of Each Theory Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory consists of eight distinct stages of human development; Stage 1: Basic Trust Versus Basic Mistrust, Stage 2: Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt, Stage 3: Initiative Versus Guilt, Stage 4: Industry Versus Inferiority, Stage 5: Identity Versus Role Confusion, Stage 6: Intimacy Versus Isolation, Stage 7: Generativity Versus Stagnation, and Stage 8: Ego Integrity Versus Despair. Erikson asserts that each stage of human development is a crisis and that successful coping in each stage allows the human to advance to the next stage of life with mental health. For the purposes of comparison, the focus will be on Stage 5: Identity Versus Role Confusion, as this stage addresses the crisis of the adolescent years. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development consists of three level and six stages that a human progresses through in life, while gaining a deeper concept to their moral development. Level 1: Pre-conventional; Stage1: Punishment and obedience orientation, Stage 2: Naïve instrumental hedonism, Level 2: Conventional; Stage 3: “Good boy/girl morality”, Stage 4: Authority-maintaining morality, Level 3: Post-conventional; Stage 5 Morality of contract, of individual rights, and of democratically accepted law, and Stage 6: