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Adversity Risk Factors

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Adversity or ‘risk factors’ are those stressors, which threaten the healthy development of a child. This threat occurs to a child’s material, social or emotional needs and abilities (Garborino & Ganzel,2000). Cumulative risk in instances where children have limited resources is also associated with an increase in behavioural problems or complications with social competence. Masten and Powell (2003) distinguished between non-independent and independent risks. Independent events are influences that occur externally to a child and includes events such as the death of a parent, poverty or war. Non-independent events are those related to the behaviour presented by the individual. Garborino and Ganzel (2000) described risk as not only originating
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