In 1963 Birmingham was a hard place for African Americans to live. The white Americans that lived there were very hostile towards the African Americans and their way of life whether it affected them or not. Many homes were bombed due to the color of the owner's skin. Many groups had reached out to Dr.Martin Luther King, a civil rights activist who was based in Atlanta at the time. After hearing about the unjust treatment of African Americans by the people in the city he rounded up some people and they made a trip down there to see what could be done. After protesting Dr.King and some of his supporters were roughly arrested and placed in jail. During his eight-day incarceration, a newspaper was released and one of the men said the protest was “unwise and untimely.” Dr.King responded in his letter says. “Frankly, I have never yet engaged in a direct-action movement that was "well timed" according to the timetable of those who have not suffered unduly from the disease of segregation.” Dr.King wasn't afraid to fight for what he believed the children of the future, the people of the present and he himself deserved. Dr.Martin Luther King was a huge advocate for nonviolent protesting during the civil rights movement. In his letter written in the first person, he explained and defended his well-known policy of nonviolent protesting and resistance.He also gave his four basic steps for a nonviolent campaign stating” collection of the facts to determine whether injustices are
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By 1963, when Martin Luther King planned a campaign against segregation in Birmingham, Alabama. During the demonstration he was arrested and lives in the jail for eight days. While he was in prison, he wrote his "letter from Birmingham Jail" to explain his actions and those who urged him to call off the demonstrations. Martin Luther King Jr. Birmingham Jail is important because, he explains the reasons for the non-violent demonstrations, he shows that black people are intelligent, and he criticizes the unjust laws of black people.
In Martin Luther King Jr’s “Letter from Birmingham jail”, King talks about his imprisonment for his involvement in a nonviolent protest and defends his rights and moral grounds for organizing nonviolent protest activities. In this essay, I will look at his views on nonviolent protest and how they differ from todays violent protests.
Keywords: Martin Luther King, Jr., “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”, nonviolent direct action, natural law, civil rights movement
Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested on April 12, 1963, in Birmingham, for protesting without a permit. The same day that King was arrested, a letter was written and signed by eight clergymen from Birmingham and titled “A Call for Unity”. The letter called for ending demonstrations and civil activities and indicated King as an “outsider”. On April 16, 1963, King responded to their letter with his own call, which has come to be known as his “Letter from Birmingham Jail.” King justified the nonviolent measures that sent him to jail and explained why the segregation laws against blacks in the south must be changed (356-371). At the beginning of this letter, King gives
After being arrested and imprisoned in Birmingham Jail, Martin Luther King Jr. wrote one of his most famous works to the people of Birmingham, titled “Letter From Birmingham Jail on April 16, 1963. This piece speaks of the evils of the segregation laws and how the blacks had been treated unfairly in Birmingham, in an attempt to get the white people to support the desegregation of Birmingham. He had been imprisoned because of his participation in a civil disobedience protest, and he is arguing that, even though the white people of Birmingham see the black’s way of protesting as wrong, it is a justified way to fight back against the unjust laws. In “Letter From Birmingham
“Letter from a Birmingham Jail” discusses the life of Martin Luther King Jr. He became a leader in the civil rights movement to end racial segregation and discrimination in America during 1950s and 1960s. According to the letter, “I think I should indicate why I am here in Birmingham, … So, I, along with several members of my staff, am here because I was invited here. I am here because I have organizational ties here. But more basically, I am in Birmingham because injustice is here.” Also, he became a leading spokesperson for nonviolent methods of achieving social change. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. wrote “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” after he was arrested for peacefully protesting segregation and racial terror in Birmingham.
Martin Luther King Jr. 's 1963 "Letter from Birmingham Jail", a rhetorical masterpiece, was written in response to eight clergymen’s statements condemning his nonviolent direct actions. He defends the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights nonviolent, direct action against individuals, institutions, and laws that look the other way while unjust racial prejudice against African Americans runs rampant in Birmingham. Using three main appeals, Ethos, Pathos, Logos, Dr. King communicates the struggle that was the essence of human rights, equality. Appealing to the logic, ethics, and emotions of the reader strengthens his rebuttal of the opposition, helps him gain support, and clearly justify the recent direct action he led. King uses logos to illustrate his argument and invalidate the opposition to his claim, leading the reader to side with his position. Exampling this, he demonstrates that direct action is not opposed to negotiation, contrary to what his fellow clergyman believe, and states “Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issue” (King par 9).
Before Martin Luther King Jr. wrote his letter, Birmingham was a segregated and immensely prejudice community. African American kids could not attend the nice schools because they were white only, they could not play on nice parks, they could not shop in the nice stores, they could not eat at nice restaurants, nor could they get jobs that required skill. The white Americans ignored the laws that gave Blacks rights and privileges; they ignored laws that protected Blacks from harm, and they treated African Americans with the least amount of respect possible. Furthermore, they didn’t just ignore the Blacks and send them away, they beat up, mobbed, and murdered many Africans. After he was arrested he was put in solitary confinement where he
When he was arrested and jailed in Birmingham, Alabama he then fell under criticism by white clergy for coming to Birmingham as an “outsider” to cause trouble and increase tension through public sit-ins and marches. I feel that Martin Luther King was able to both set aside that criticism by establishing his credibility to have not only been invited to come to Birmingham to help end the injustice to the Negro people via peaceful means, but he was able to identify moral, legal and ethical cause to promote his quest to put a stop to what he identified as “the most thoroughly segregated city in the United States” (King, 2017, p, 3). I will provide a summary that will show what Martin Luther King believed were the cause of the injustice that he was striving to end to as well as his concern over the white community’s ability to make the Negro “wait for more than three hundred and forty years for our constitutional and God-given rights.”
During the course of living human being are subjected to many controversial arguments and ethical stations. Education in concept of ethical reasoning and in the fundamentals of the principles are important for one to be skilled in ethical reasoning. Ethical reasoning is a very important element in human nature of living either professionally or individually. Ethical reasoning offers critics with the capability to represent viewpoints, ideas and make judgement. Moreover ethical reasoning enable critics’ to consciously give examination for them to reach a solution that does not harm anybody else. Ethical reasoning can be defined as arguing the wrong and the right of human behavior.
In 1963, Martin Luther King became the most known civil right leader of his time. During this time Martin Luther King gave a speech in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington. Many whites in the south at this time did not see any racial harmony that King spoke of that would happen (Black History Timeline). Not long after some white supremacist bombed a Baptist church in Birmingham, Alabama killing four young African American girls. The church bombing was the third one Birmingham had in eleven days. This happened a few days after the government started to integrate schools. This was a dangerous time and area to integrate because Birmingham, Alabama had one of the most dangerous and strongest leading KKK (Black History Timeline).
Martin Luther King Jr. discusses the advantages and purposes for his theory of nonviolent direct action in his Letter From Birmingham City Jail. He shows four basic steps that must be taken to achieve nonviolent action. They include 1) collection of facts to determine whether injustices are alive; 2) negotiation; 3) self-purification; and 4) direct action. Each of these steps will be explained as part of King's argument later in this essay. The main purpose of a nonviolent campaign is to force any community to confront a problem rather than refuse to negotiate or face a specific issue. In the letter, King discusses his group's reasons for coming to Birmingham.
:"Letter from Birmingham Jail" is a powerful piece of writing that graces the writings by Martin Luther. Part of the power lies in the use of rhetorical devices such as ethos, logos, and pathos in the letter. Luther used these stylistic devices and literary approaches to express his message, intention and express the mood of the letter making a masterpiece like no other letters before.
The author’s core points revolve around Martin Luther King, Jr. defense to his rights as well as the moral reasons for leading the nonviolent protests. The letter explains that the main aim of the protests was to champion for the Africa-Americans civil rights. In the letter, the author, Dr. King shielded the demonstrations and protests citing legitimacy in breaking the laws during the protests. The letter indicated
The aims of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s was to end racial discrimination and segregation. Martin Luther King Jr. was one of the leaders of this movement and an advocate for non-violent protests and peaceful resistance. Starting with the Montgomery Bus Boycott, MLK lead a series of non-violent protests, inspired by Thoreau’s essay. Blacks marched, boycotted, and protested for their rights and were arrested in the process. In 1963, the March on Birmingham occurred, to encourage integration and desegregation in Birmingham. Children as young as six years old marched and were arrested. It captured the attention of the nation and employed real social and legal change, as the city was required to integrate and hire African Americans downtown. MLK was a part of the Birmingham Campaign and was arrested and imprisoned, writing his famed “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”. In this letter, MLK expresses his reasons for the protest and his desire for equality. MLK stated “in no sense do I advocate evading or defying the law … I submit that an individual who breaks a law that conscience tells him is unjust, and who willingly accepts the penalty of imprisonment in order to arouse the conscience of the community over its injustice, is in reality expressing the highest respect for law” (King). In this passage, he states his willingness to accept his punishment for breaking the law, a small price to pay for the possible change he could make in