The concepts of pigments in metabolism are applicable to this condition and are important in societal understanding. Pigments can be found in leaves, medicine, and food. Pigments contain chlorophyll a and b depending on the type of plant, where chorin wavelengths of both colors of blue and yellow are shown in the white light. This color gives the plant a green pigment. Plants reflecting green pigments are when the bouncing through the accessory pigments, going to the antenna complex, and then going to the reaction center occurs on a leaf. This bouncing of color of the leaf happens during the process of photosynthesis and absorbing all other colors in ROYGBIV. Anthocyanins comes from Greek origins meaning anthos =flower and kyanos=blue. Anthocyanin pigmentation is evident in foods mainly in fruits and vegetables, resulting in the blues, greens, purples, and red flavonoid pigments
Synthetic food colorants which were being used in beverages, desserts, jams, jellies, sauces, sweets, bakery items, cosmetics, toothpaste, syrup, capsule, tablets are toxic for human’s health. Anthocyanin is good natural food colorant which has so many health benefits such as Anti-inflammatory, Inhibitor of tumor cell proliferation and lipid peroxidation, Inducer of cancer cells for apoptosis, Anti-neoplastic, cardiovascular diseases, Vaso-protective, Neuro-protective, Antiulcer, Antioxidant and drug detoxification, Anti-diabetes and Vision improvement. Cost of the anthocyanin is very high because the methods using for purification is expensive like chromatography, and the quantity purified after the final step was very low. Alcohol based ATPS
The build up of stomach acid may cause irritation and excess pain to individuals. Luckily, antacids being a weak base can help relieve the symptoms and pain. Antacids, such as Gelusil, Medi-Firs, Alka Seltzer, and Alcalak are neutralizing agents of acids that become helpful to the human body when heartburn occurs. Heartburn, also known as acid reflux is a common medical issue that occurs when hydrochloric acid (HCl) from the stomach moves backward along the digestive track to the esophagus (located within the throat). This reverse flow of fluids causes a burning sensation due to and possible sour taste that is characteristic of acids .
Mulberry and blueberry are examples of the berries species that contain high antioxidants and low in calories. These berries may contribute in minimizing and preventing the risk of diabetes due to the presence of high amounts of phenolic compound and flavonoids such as anthocyanin. It may exhibit neuroprotective and anticancer activity (Wang Y, Xiang L, Wang C, Tang C, He X, 2013). The reaction of the antioxidants in berries related to the reduction of oxidative stress and inhibition of macromolecular oxidation in fruits that high in phenolic compound (Larson, 1988). The anthocyanin content also have other health-related function such as anticancer, antiaging and antiobesity. However, the research regarding these functions still in progress and some of the research still needs a further improvement. The rich content of poplyphenol in berries helps in reducing the oxidation and producing the insulin to reduce the blood glucose
Purple corn is a Peruvian superfood with more antioxidants than blueberries. This corn contains many phytonutrients including large amounts of polyphenols and anthocyanins, which protect the blood vessels. Studies show that plants with high anthocyanins and phenolic constituents have the highest antioxidant activity. Anthocyanins are a type of complex flavonoid that plants give a blue, purple or red. Anthocyanins are acting anti-inflammatory and stimulate the regeneration of connective tissue.
The roles of antioxidants( Endogenous compounds) are to neutralize the excess of free radicals, to protect the cells against their toxic effects and to contribute in disease
Quercetin is a natural flavonoid in many foods, including apples, cranberries, blueberries, and onions. Quercetin may have many beneficial biological properties like, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective. There is also considerable interest in quercetin’s potential
Polyphenol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds into dark pigments (Sukhonthara et al., 2016) Inhibitors that could stop the polyphenol oxidase from catalyzing could stop the browning from occurring. Catechol oxidase is an enzyme that is found in most fruits and vegetables. It is known to enable the browning of cut fruits or vegetables by catalyzing a reaction between catechol and oxygen. The result of this reaction happening would be polyphenol, the browning that occurs when fruits or vegetables are exposed to oxygen. In this experiment, we are measuring different compounds that inhibit catechol oxidase from catalyzing benzoquinones.
Reduction of an electron from ring C in ANT causes to formation of free radical semiquinone. This radical is partly stable in anoxic environment but under normoxic condition, its unpaired electron is given to oxygen and superoxide radicals are formed. Appropriate flavoproteins such as complex I catalyses reduced semiquinone radicals by accepting electrons from NADH or NADPH and delivering them to ANT. This sequence of reactions are known as “redox cycling” that can be very deterious (dangerous) because low amount of ANT is adequate for formation of many superoxide radicals (67). This radical damage triggers production of highly toxic aldehydes such as malondialdehyde (MAD). These aldehydes can diffuse easily in the cell and even from cell membrane
The red cabbage has a chemical in it called anthocyanin. This chemical is found in a variety of fruit or vegetable skins. The chemical will change color based on the acidity or base level of a certain solution. Red cabbage acts as an indicator. When the paper is soaked in the cabbage water that contains the anthocyanin, the paper is then turned into an indicator. When painting with an acid or base, whatever color shows up on the paper is determined by an acid or base. For example, when painting with a base, the more basic it is the cooler the color will be ranging from green to purple. The more acidic the color, the warmer the color on the indicator ranging from orange to deep red.
Hydrogen Peroxide, otherwise know as H₂O₂ is the simplest of all the peroxide chemicals known to man. Hydrogen Peroxide is base that is used in many reactions to create other more complex peroxides, it is used as an oxidizing reactant in these cases. It is created in 4 steps. Step 1, Palladium catalyses the reaction between H₂ and anthraquinone to create anthrahydroquinone (H₂Q):
vulgare shown to have significant antibacterial activity in vitro as compared to some standard antibiotics. Butanol and aqueous fractions of F. vulgare fruit showed intermediate free radical scavenging activity in vitro. A group of rat pretreated with aqueous extract of F. vul-gare shown to have suppressed ethanol-induced gastric lesions. Also, this extract significantly reduced lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant activity. Administration of methanolic extract of F. vulgare fruit orally to mice has been shown to suppress Type 4 allergic reactions as well as acute and subacute inflammatory responses and also shown moderate centeral analgesic effect. In addition, it significantly enhance plasma antioxidant status while suppressing lipid peroxidation chain
Flavonolignans are natural polyphenolic compounds that comprises of flavonoid and lignan. The basic chemical structure of these essential nutrients consists of two benzene rings bound by a three-atom heterocyclic carbon chain which can be chemically modifiable yielding several compounds with different properties. The structural requirements for the antioxidant and free radical scavenging functions of flavonoids include a hydroxyl group in carbon position three, a double bond between carbon positions two and three, a carbonyl group in carbon position four, and polyhydroxylation of the A and B aromatic rings.
As you may know, antioxidants promote good health as they help avoid diseases. More specifically, antioxidants help slow down the oxidation of cells in our body. When cells oxidize, they generate free radicals, which are also known as cellular bi-products. It is perfectly safe to have a manageable amount of these free radicals in the body. However, when the free radicals are in excess, they can wreak havoc on our organism's cellular
In addition to several antioxidant compounds that mop up free radicals themselves, mustard contains compounds that enhance the activity of both ingested and internally produced antioxidants. Sulforaphane for example, although not an antioxidant itself, is an effective inducer of internally produced antioxidant enzymes. These, in turn, enhance the activity of the crucial intracellular antioxidant, glutathione and also catalyze production of another of the body's powerful antioxidants,