Anti Inflammatory And Macrophage Inhibitory Potential Of Inflammation

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Anti-inflammatory and Macrophage Inhibitory Potential of Picrorhiza kurroa in experimental models of inflammation.

The rhizome of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth, is widely used for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions. In the present study, we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-granuloma activity of Picrorhiza kurroa rhizome extract (PKRE) against carrageenan-induced paw edema, cotton pellet implantation induced granuloma formation and Complete Freund 's Adjuvant (CFA) induced stimulation of peritoneal macrophages in experimental rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was grossly observed by determining the efficacy to inhibit the increased paw edema volume while the anti-granuloma activity was evaluated
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In chronic inflammatory and granulomatous conditions, macrophage dysfunction plays a central role in progression and maintenance of disease like in case of rheumatoid arthritis where persistent antigen stimulation leads to accumulation of macrophages in the inflamed synovial membrane and at the cartilage-pannus junction [2]. This is evident by elevated levels of macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and inflammatory mediators such as COX-2 which has a key role in the maintenance of inflammation by regulating the levels of prostaglandins [3, 4].
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and glucocorticoids supplemented with biologics are the conventional drug options for the treatment of chronic inflammation [5]. In contrast to their efficiency in improving disease conditions, chronic and long-term use of these drugs may lead to serious adverse effects such as gastric ulceration, bleeding and emergence of opportunistic infection due to immunosupression. In US, more than 16,000 deaths per year have been reported due to gastric ulcers and gastrointestinal bleeding associated with prolonged use of NSAIDs in arthritic patients [6]. Due to high cost and adverse events associated with conventional treatment, more than 70% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis rely on complementary and alternative medicine with or without conventional medicine [7].
Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. (Scrophulariaceae) is a small perennial herb,
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