Application Of Low Power Integrated Intelligent Sensors

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2 Research Motivation and Significance Applications of low-power integrated intelligent sensors [1–8] have been prolific in recent years, including, for instance, in environmental observation [9–11], security surveillance [12, 13], infrastructure monitoring and communication [14–17], and biomedical health care monitoring [18–21]. In particular, as the baby boomers approach retirement age, medical expenses become significant. For example, in 2014, health care accounted for 28% of US federal spending [22]. One major problem with current health care systems is that sensing and processing medical data require significant resources. To alleviate this problem, wearable medical devices [23–27] are expected to provide automatic monitoring and…show more content…
The design challenges of the aforementioned intelligent sensors originate from their high-density circuits, especially DSP circuits performing multiply-and-accumulate (MAC), i.e., adders and coefficient multipliers (DSP algorithms usually involve many MAC operations), which require a large circuit area and high power consumption. This is one of the most critical problems in integrated intelligent sensor design. For example, in [34] a seizure detector consumed more than 50% of the circuit area and power in a System-on-a-Chip (SOC), even though an advanced lookup table (LUT) method was applied, which saved more than 50% of the total gate count in the digital filters [35]. The power cost of the chip may require battery replacement every six hours, which is not convenient or feasible for many patients. Essentially, the large circuit area and high power consumption of MAC circuits limit system performance and raise chip costs. Medical applications generally require higher resolution and higher reliability, which only exacerbates the problem. One promising solution to the above challenges is Delta-Sigma technology. A Delta-Sigma Modulator (DSM) converts an analog input signal to a 1-bit Delta-Sigma modulated digital bit-stream, as shown in Fig. 2 (a). Compared with conventional multi-bit binary systems, the Delta-Sigma system has several advantages: (1) a Delta-Sigma bit-stream can
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