Applications of Microbial Bioremediation Essay

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Microorganisms are present almost everywhere in the world both in living and non-living systems. Whenever the microorganisms are present close to some toxins or contaminants, they help in their removal or sequestration in one way or the other and thereby clean up the environment. These special classes of microorganisms are considered very important for the environment as they considered as “Natural Cleansers” of the ecosystem.
Microbial bioremediation can be seen happening almost anywhere such as soil, water, sludge, sewage, inside plants and animals, in agricultural fields and so on. In other words we can say that bioremediation may occur in a vast range of surroundings depending upon the availability of suitable microbes. This property
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Microorganisms are present almost everywhere in the world both in living and non-living systems. Whenever the microorganisms are present close to some toxins or contaminants, they help in their removal or sequestration in one way or the other and thereby clean up the environment. These special classes of microorganisms are considered very important for the environment as they considered as “Natural Cleansers” of the ecosystem.
Microbial bioremediation can be seen happening almost anywhere such as soil, water, sludge, sewage, inside plants and animals, in agricultural fields and so on. In other words we can say that bioremediation may occur in a vast range of surroundings depending upon the availability of suitable microbes. This property has also proved to be very beneficial. However, the mechanism and pathways of remedial processes are different in each case.
Let us first discuss the mechanism of remediation and sequestration of harmful heavy metals. The microorganisms, mainly bacteria, have a tendency of binding the metals to their cell walls.
The three main mechanisms for the binding of these heavy metals to bacterial cell wall are as under:
a) Ion exchange reactions with peptidoglycan and teichoic acid (Beveridge et atl. 1980).

b) Precipitation through nucleation reactions (Beveridge et al. 1985).

c) Complexation with Nitrogen and Oxygen ligands (Mueller et al. 1989).
It has been observed that gram positive bacteria have relatively high contents of peptidoglycan and
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