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Applications of Microbial Bioremediation Essay

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Microorganisms are present almost everywhere in the world both in living and non-living systems. Whenever the microorganisms are present close to some toxins or contaminants, they help in their removal or sequestration in one way or the other and thereby clean up the environment. These special classes of microorganisms are considered very important for the environment as they considered as “Natural Cleansers” of the ecosystem.
Microbial bioremediation can be seen happening almost anywhere such as soil, water, sludge, sewage, inside plants and animals, in agricultural fields and so on. In other words we can say that bioremediation may occur in a vast range of surroundings depending upon the availability of suitable microbes. This property
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The gram positive bacteria play an important role in sequestration of these heavy metals from human body.
However, it may be noted that these microorganisms carry out “Detoxication” and NOT “Detoxification”. Detoxification can be defined as the phenomenon of removal of harmful drugs, mutagens and other toxic agents from the body; whereas, Detoxication is the process of preventing the entry of harmful substances into the body (Jin et al. 2009).
Detoxication occurs primarily in the intestine, liver and kidney where the microorganism sequester the harmful substances before they reach the target tissues and cause damage, either fatal or non-fatal (Berhane et al. 1994). So it can thus be concluded that gram positive bacteria and even the probiotic bacteria have a very important role in the binding of heavy metals and thereby protecting the body.

4.1 Mechanism of Removal And Sequestration Of Heavy Metals
4.1.1 Removal of Arsenic
Arsenic is a highly toxic element and a very common contaminant now-a-days. It is present in earth’s crust, in clay and also in sulphur rich regions (Henker 2009). It is colourless, tasteless and odourless (Ahsan et al. 2000). It is a very common contaminant of ground water. When this water is consumed for drinking then it may cause lung disorders, kidney failures, bladder and skin cancer. Therefore, its presence poses a serious life threat to humans as well as other animals also.
Due to this reason, removal of arsenic
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