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Essay about Architectural Forms in the Mannerist Period

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During the Mannerist period, architects experimented with using architectural forms to emphasize solid and spatial relationships. The Renaissance ideal of harmony, gave way to freer and more imaginative rhythms.
During the High Renaissance, architectural concepts derived from classical ancient times were developed, and used with bigger surety. The most representative architect is Bramante (1444–1514), who expanded the applicability of classical architecture to contemporary buildings in a style that was to control Italian architecture in the sixteenth century. During the Mannerist period, however, architects experimented with using architectural forms to stress on solid and spatial relationships.
Specifically, in Mannerist architecture,
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Giulio Romano (1499–1546), was a pupil of Raphael, assisting him on various works for the Vatican. Romano was also a highly inventive designer, working for Federico II Gonzaga at Mantua on the Palazzo Te (1524–1534), a project which combined his skills as architect, sculptor, and painter. In this work, which integrated garden grottoes and extensive frescoes, he uses illusionistic effects, surprising combinations of architectural form and texture, and the frequent use of features that seem somewhat unbalanced or out of alignment.
Michelangelo's architectural fame lies chiefly in St Peter's Basilica in Rome. St Peter's was "the greatest creation of the Renaissance," and a great number of architects contributed their skills to it. But at its conclusion there was more of Michelangelo’s design than of any other architect. When he took over the project in 1546 Michelangelo integrated Bramante’s Greek-cross plan and redesigned the piers, the walls, and the dome, giving the lower weight-bearing members huge proportions and eliminating the encircling aisles from the chancel and identical transept arms. Michelangelo’s dome was a masterpiece of design using two masonry shells, one within the other and crowned by a massive lantern supported, as at Florence on ribs .For the exterior of the building, he designed a giant order which defines every external bay. The full lot is held together by a wide cornice which runs
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