Arguments Against Physical Machines Jenna Beran
In A Contemporary Defense of Dualism, J. P. Moreland challenges the problem of mind and body. He uses the terms intentionality and subjectivity to argue that humans are not physical machines. Subjectivity is the opinions and feelings from experience that is unique to the individual. Intentionality describes how thought can be directed on a particular object. This is consciousness. These terms are what make human beings distinct from physical machines. Moreland argues that human beings are different from a physical machine because humans have a mind that uses intentionality and subjectivity.
Moreland compares the intentionality and subjectivity of physical things to the mind. Humans are able to think about desires and beliefs with the use of intentionality. We are not just a bundle of nerves that take in sensory information and give feedback because of the intentionality of the mind. Instead, human beings are able to process the sensory information, and give feedback through unique opinions. The combination of consciousness and experience are what makes every human unique in the world. When looking at a physical object like a computer, it doesn’t have the characteristics of subjectivity and intentionality. The computer does not have subjectivity because it cannot feel emotions. The computer also doesn’t have intentionality because it cannot express its beliefs. Humans can envision objects that do not really exist such as a