Article Review of 'Corporal Punishment and Child Behavioral and Cognitive Outcomes through 5 Years of Age'

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Article Review: Corporal Punishment and Child Behavioral and Cognitive Outcomes through 5 Years of Age: Evidence from a Contemporary Urban Birth Cohort Study. Summary This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3 years of age and the associations between spanking and externalizing behaviour and receptive verbal ability at age 5 years. The authors first identified the determinants of spanking through a review of works on spanking. (Berline et al. 2009;). They found that gender of the children played a factor, which boys more likely to be spanked than girls. (4). They also found the age, experience, mental health, temperament, family background, and life experience of the mother to be major factors. (5). They also found race and socioeconomic status to be factors, with African-American children being more likely to be spanked at all ages and children in lower income families more likely to be spanked. (5). The authors also identify the known effects of spanking on childhood outcomes. They noted that most of the literature has been concerned with aggressive child outcomes, such as increased child stress reactivity (Bugenthal, Martorell, and Barraza, 2003). They also noted that studies are emerging on the connection between spanking and child cognitive outcomes. (Gershoff, 2010). They criticize these emerging works as suffering from a lack of "…adequate controls for the predictors of spanking, risk factors which themselves could be
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