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Astronomy Of The Islamic World

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Astronomy in Medieval Islam Astronomy is the branch of science that deals with celestial objects, space, and the universe as a whole. During the medieval era, a golden age of innovations in science took part in the Islamic world. In particular cities in the Iberian Peninsula, like Cordoba, astronomy blossomed and thrived as an aftermath of the genius and creativity that took place there. Innovations in astronomy were vital in inspiring the other scientific discoveries, and were greatly encouraged by the religious groups during the time. In the Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, S. Nomanul Haq and Massimo Campanini wrote that “astronomy is the only natural science that escaped the censure of the medieval Muslim opponents of secular sciences (ʿulūm al-awāʿil) and found a home in mosques, receiving the blessing of mainstream religious circles.”1 Because of this support and encouragement, scientists of astronomy were set up to thrive and innovate. Discoveries during this period made fundamental advancements on Greek and Mesopotamian astronomy and were crucial for the later advances of Copernicus and Kepler that give the view on astronomy that is held today. The support of astronomy that garnered during the medieval era had many influences. One influence was religion. Marking time accurately is essential for many religions including Islam, Judaism, and Christianity. The Koran requires the faithful to pray five times a day at five very precise times: at the exact moment
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