With the inventions of more efficient ships and the perfection of navigational instruments, the Spanish (as well as England and France) gained a curiosity to explore and find a way to Asia by water and
ient Egypt was an established civilization of Northeastern Africa. Located near the lower half of the Nile River, it was an extremely sophisticated civilization for its time. The Egyptians were especially intelligent in agriculture and infrastructure. They had pyramids and temples, that were places of worship and used for religious matter. Basic buildings that were used for things like banking and irrigations systems used to control flooding. The Egyptians were able to adjust and modify to their natural surroundings as well. By predicting the flood of the Nile River, they were able to stimulate agriculture and maintain their population. They were also pioneers in a number of new technologies; some of which are highly used today. Much of
19. The growth of cross cultural trade spread scientific and technological traditions influencing Greek philosophy and science throughout Europe, Greek and Indian math on Muslim followers, Eastern Asia’s gunpowder and printing technologies throughout Islam and Western
European exploration was a time period in European history when European countries explored and discovered new parts of the world. The desire to grow rich and spread Christianity alongside advances in sailing technology lead to European exploration. European countries wanted the same success in trading with Asia as Italy, so they sought a direct trade route to Asia to bypass the Italian merchants who sold their goods from Asia at unreasonable prices. The spread of Christianity also led to European exploration because they believed it was their sacred duty to convert non-Catholics, which led to discovering new people and converting them. Lastly, advances in sailing technology, such as the caravel, astrolabe, and compass, led to European exploration by allowing for longer voyages and greater distances being able to be crossed.The desire to grow rich, spread Christianity, and advances in sailing technology led to European exploration.
The Islamic civilization spread to encompass such an extensive empire by using their resources and becoming a peaceful civilization with peaceful people.
Question 1: Technologically, European exploration was pushed forward through the development of new technology such as the astrolabe, which was an instrument used for triangulation, location of celestial bodies, and finding the local time when given longitude as well as latitude. In addition, Europeans improved the compass, maritime maps, and the design of ships. The caravel, a small ship developed by the Portuguese, was used to navigate around the African and European coasts due to its maneuverability and fast speed. Politically, many rulers were drawn to exploration because of the discovery, pursuit for wealth (gold), and a way to harm the Islamic empires. For example, Prince Henry of Portugal organized expeditions to the African coast in the 15th century. In addition, Spain tried to make their naval force and
Anna Correa Mr. McKenna Global 9H 5/20/13 The Effects of the Expansion in the Post-Classical Period: The Islamic Civilization The “Post-Classical Period,” was a time of change, expansion, and vast cultural diffusion. The Islamic civilization is a group that emerged from the Semitic groups of southwestern Asia, and moved to the Arabian peninsula
For centuries in the Muslim land the harsh and dry conditions made it hard to collect store and transport water. Most of the progress made in technology and engineering. As said in the quote "Muslim engineers also perfected the waterwheel and built underground water channels some fifty feet underground. The underground channels had manholes (openings from the street) so that they could be cleaned and repaired."(document 7) They created these inventions to help keep water and keep it clean so that they would be able to survive and thrive in where they were staying. As for astronomy most of their work was based off Hellenistic and Indian writing. This could show they were in a golden age because they took the time and effort to figure out what would work and what wouldn’t work and try and fix it. Under one of the early caliphates most Muslim scholars started learning from these writings. As said in this quote "The astrolabe, pictured, allowed people to find their precise latitude by using the position of the stars. The astrolabe was later modified to be used on ships. This innovation allowed Europeans to begin exploring the seas more safely. This lead to the Europeans finding faster trade routes to Asia by sea and Christopher Columbus’s “discovery” of the New World."(Document 6) It talks about the creation and perfection of the astrolabe and how it helped people find their exact latitude using the positions of the stars. This didn’t just help throughout the Muslim time but helped other generations of people after. It helped the Europeans find trade routes faster and help Christopher Columbus “discover” the new world. Not only that but it helped people navigate through the seas more
The astrolabe was vital for the Spanish, French, and English exploration of the New World. It allowed them to estimate their location, an important asset that allowed them to venture further and further inland without losing their bearings. The marine astrolabe was crucial in the accurate navigation to and from the New World. Without the marine astrolabe the Spanish, French and English would not have been able to efficiently colonize the New World, as they would be unsure of their landing points and could easily become hopelessly lost at sea.
One innovation that greatly increased trade in the Indian ocean were Chinese Junks. Junks were Chinese sailboats that were created during the Song dynasty. The Arabian dhow sails were also produced during this time period. This was very significant because during the classical period, people could only travel along the Indian Ocean depending on the monsoon seasons. This is because the current would only travel in specific directions depending on the season. This new Arabian dhow allowed for travel against the wind and current, giving the merchants more control over trade. They could transport a vast amount of goods due to their substantial size. Another technological advancement was the creation of Arab astrolabes. The astrolabe uses the sun, the moon, and the stars to identify one’s location. This was highly useful for sea trade when determining the ship’s latitude. The Chinese compass was another useful technology for determining the cardinal directions and navigation at sea. Therefore, without these significant technological innovations, trade along the Indian Ocean would not have been as easy or
Much of the new technology that they brought over, however, was borrowed from various people and cultures along their travels. Some of these new technologies include the compass, which they used to figure out which direction they were travelling, and the astrolabe, which aided the sailors in trying to find out how far north or south they were from the equator. Another borrowed technology that greatly benefitted the Europeans on their travels was cartography; this is the science of map making. This was probably one of the most beneficial discoveries to the Europeans because it allowed them to draw out where they had been and where they were
1. During the Agricultural Revolution, humans began settling down in communities and farming. The more the residents depended on farming, the more the population increased. This made it harder to revert to the hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Human waste also easily contaminated water in settlements. 2. Settlements had storehouses to keep valuable items and food
2. In the Islamic Empire, many Muslims were traders; therefore, they traveled in the empire and explored distant lands. Because of the need for navigation advancements, Muslims took interest in astronomy, navigation, and maps and developed advancements. Muslims in the Islamic Empire first used and studied maps drafted by the Greeks and later, as they learned more about the land they conquered, they added improvements and constructed more maps. The Muslim geographers were they first to use measurements and scales to make the most accurate maps.
population.People in these three regions lived very much alike. By the 15th century, the compass, the ship, and the quadrant allowed Europeans to sail across the open ocean. The
Most of these items are related to the study of heavenly bodies and the subject of astronomy. The Celestial globe is used to observe the positions of the stars and other celestial bodies. The Two Quadrant are used to read time, it allows the height of the sun and the angle to the horizon to be calculated. A sundial is an instrument used to measures apparent solar time, by measuring the position of the shadow of the sun as it changes through the day. The Torquetum is an object used to determine the relative position of heavenly bodies and tell the time. According to the experts, the sundials reveal that it is 10:30 am on April 11,1533. This tells us that exact date and time of Dinteville?fs visit to London.