the classical cornerstone of contemporary political science. The two contradicting methods of participation in public life, community-based decision making, holding public office, and government selection and operations in both states mark the continuous dilemma that divided people, historians and politicians: Democracy or Dictatorship? While the Athenians were credited with the inception of democracy and the distribution of political power, Spartans were considered a role model of a classical dictatorship that glorified nationalistic and militaristic conventions. This paper compares and contrasts the political system and public life in ancient Athens and Sparta and examines the similarities and differences of the governmental structures of both states.
Athens and Sparta: Differences and Similarities in Public and Political Life:
As a society controlled by wealthy aristocrat landowners and the poor farmers represented the majority of its population, Athens was on the brink of social unrest and political turmoil as the farmers fell into debt and it accumulated to the extent that the majority of them had to sell themselves into slavery. The instability of the social and political situation in Athens led to the Cleisthenes’ Reforms, where democracy was first introduced to solve the social and political unrest in the early Classical Athens. Cleisthenes, the prominent aristocratic politician, introduced the concept of democracy by dividing the Athenian population into