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Essay about Australian Immigration And Its Effects

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Australian Immigration and Its Effects

Australia is an island continent which is geographically isolated from the rest of the world. This has resulted in the evolution of many unique plants and animals and the development of a very fragile ecosystem. This ecosystem has been influenced by human immigration for many thousands of years.

The original immigrants were the Aborigines who are thought to have migrated to Australia from Asia between 50 and 100 thousand years ago. These primitive people learned to live in the inhospitable environment of Australia with very little effect. Their major environmental impact was from the use of controlled burning of the land. Over the years they had learned the benefit of
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The settlement was started on
January 26 which is now celebrated every year as Australia day. The settlement was later named Sydney after Britain's secretary, Lord Sydney. Lord Sydney was responsible for the entire colony.

The first European immigrants brought with them their livestock, plants, and traditional ways. Much of this was not suitable for Australian conditions.
They also brought with them cultural beliefs including the Christian belief that man was superior to the rest of creation and had the God given right to exploit nature. The Europeans believed that the Aborigines were inferior and refused to use the knowledge that they had acquired about the environment. They began a campaign of genocide with bullets, diseases, and even poison. With few
Aborigine survivors the practice of periodic burning came to an end. This led to many of the plants and animals which had become dependent on this regular burning to die off.

Sheep ranching quickly became a major agricultural practice in Australia.
By 1860 over 20,000,000 sheep were grazing and by 1890 there were over
100,000,000 spread over the entire continent. Sheep graze in large herds and their hooves destroy the fragile soil by trampling it down so hard that roots and water can not easily get through it. Over grazing quickly led to soil erosion turning pastures into dust bowls. This also led to the
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