Autism Spectrum Disorder is a growing problem throughout the entire globe. Autism Spectrum Disorder is defined as deficits in social reciprocity and communication, as well as unusual, restricted and repetitive behaviors (Lord). Such behaviors may include running back and forth, excessive cleaning, noises, and clapping. These also vary greatly with age and ability, and the notion of ASD has been introduced to recognize these diversities (Firth). Autism was first discovered in 1943 when Leo Kanner observed 11 children with several common traits such as, impairments in social interaction, anguish for changes, good memory, belated echolalia, over sensitivity to certain stimuli (especially sound), food problems, limitations in spontaneous activity,
Many of us have heard about Autism, also knows as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Some have a family member, a friend, or know someone who has ASD. Increasingly it is becoming a more common disability. “Autism is one of the fastest-growing developmental disorders in the U.S” (Autism Speaks). Autism has no respect for gender, race, social class and or ethnicity. “Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder that involves abnormal development and function of the brain.” (Autism Center of Excellence) People who have autism have a lot of difficulties with social skills, communication and also will develop behavior issues. These behavior problems of an individual with autism can vary at times and can go from mild to severe. According to the Autism Science Foundation it says,” Many people with the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) also have unusual ways of learning, paying attention, and reacting to different sensations. The thinking and learning abilities of people with ASD can vary—from gifted to severely challenged.” The causes and symptoms, as well as the diagnosis, and the treatments of autism vary.
Autism spectrum disorders are a class of developmental disorders that impair social skills, behavior, and communication (Center for Disease Control). ASDs are considered ‘spectrum’ disorders because each patient has a unique experience in the nature and severity of their symptoms (Center for Disease Control). Under the umbrella of ASDs, there are three types of disorders, including Autistic disorder, Asperger Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (Center for Disease Control). Autistic disorder is the most severe of the three, and patients exhibit significant problems with language, communication, and behavior (Center for Disease Control). Furthermore, people with Autistic disorder often have some intellectual impairment (Center for Disease Control). Asperger Syndrome is a milder form of autistic disorder where patients have some developmental delays, but their language and intellect are not affected (Center for Disease Control). The mildest of the ASDs is the pervasive developmental disorder. These patients usually don’t meet all of the criteria for autistic disorder, but do show some signs of social and communication problems (Center for Disease Control). The number of children diagnosed with ASD is growing, and currently 1 in 88 children fall somewhere on the spectrum (Mari-Bauset et al., 2013). Boys are four times more likely than girls to have autism, and while the exact cause of these disorders is unknown, both genetic and
Autism is a developmental disorder, which is characterized by a dyad of difficulties in a) communication and social interaction and b) restricted interests and imagination (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Individuals on the Autism Spectrum might find it challenging to understand what other people think or what the reasons for their behaviours are, as their ‘theory of mind’ may not be well developed (Schuwerk, Vuori & Sodian, 2015). It is possible that this is why they might behave in socially inappropriate ways, being unable to differentiate between different contexts, while they might also find it difficult to make friends. Moreover, it is likely that they are fond of routines, repetition and structure (Carnahan, Musti-Rao, & Bailey, 2009), as they might be nervous with unknown, new situations. In addition, some of them might not do eye contact with other people, whereas some others might not endure to be touched and might have a difficulty developing speech (Jordan, 2005). Individuals on the Autism Spectrum might sometimes be prohibited to initiate conversations and might struggle with finding different ways to play and behave, due to the possible deficit of imagination, which in some cases might result in them having a narrow sphere of interests. Nevertheless, it should be noted that this group of people is rather heterogeneous, as characteristics of autism may differ from one individual to another (Gwynette, 2013). Another point is that people with Autism
Autism has become an increasingly important public health concern as the number of yearly diagnoses of the disorder has increased since the late 20th century. The National Institute of Health estimates that 1 in 88 children in the United States are classified as having an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (NINDS, 2009), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs children 's ability to learn and causes issues with social interaction and communication. Symptoms of ASD include delays in speech and language, issues with social interaction, and unusual behaviors/routines.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autism are both general terms for a group of complex disorders of brain development (“What is Autism,” 2014). Autism is very common, it affects over 200,000 people in the United States per year. Autism can be treated but there is no known cure for autism, it can only last for a couple of years or a lifetime. This disorder is a serious development disorder that impairs the patient’s ability to interact and communicate with others. This disorder attacks the nervous system, it is known to affect ages 3-60 and is more likely to affect males over females. The symptoms can vary, the most common symptoms include
Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition by Schopler, Eric; Van Bourgondien, Mary E.; Wellman, G. Janette; Love, Steven R. Published by Western Psychological Services, 625 Alaska Ave., Torrance, CA, 90503-5124. The test is geared for ages 2 through 5 but can be administered to older individuals if their estimated IQ is below 79. The test is administered in a group and takes 5-10 minutes. The 2012 price data estimates $158 per complete test kit including 25 Standard Version rating booklets, 25 High-Functioning rating booklets, 25 Questionnaires for Parents or Caregivers, and manual; $37 per 25 Standard Version rating booklets; $37 per 25 High-Functioning rating booklets; $26 per 25 Questionnaires for Parents or Caregivers; $74 per manual.
The most recent data collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) shows that 1 in 68 children are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (CDC, 2014). Children diagnosed with ASD often have difficulty with functional performance in several key areas including; social participation, communication, school based activities, motor performance and play. These impairments in functional performance are not exclusive to the child alone as the caregiver often assumes a great deal of burden in managing the symptoms of a child with ASD. Furthermore, these difficulties along with the rising diagnosis rate has pushed ASD to the forefront of clinical research and has raised issues regarding which Ayres
Over the years, more people are becoming aware of Autism Spectrum Disorder, ASD. The growing number of individuals who are affected by ASD have been increasing over the years. This could be do to the new DSM development of what is considered ASD or simply more children are being born with ASD. Either way, ASD is more predominate in our society today. ASD is defined in the DSM 5 as having abnormal social aspects, lack of social skills, non-verbal communications skills, deficits in development, lack of understanding of relationships, and self-stimulation through repetitive behaviors (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Although these are not all of the symptoms caused by ASD
Every year one in 68 Americans is diagnosed with autism. There are more than 3.5 million Americans living with an autism spectrum disorder (Autism Society), which makes it the fastest growing developmental disorder in the United States, hence the significant amount of studies being done to explore its characteristics and find solutions. Autism, also known as ASD, is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that is categorized by dysfunctions in social situations, communications, constrained interests, and repetitive stereotypic behaviors (Siniscalco et al). These behaviors can range from mild to very severe, and may be accompanied with other disorders. Autism can be diagnosed during early childhood, while symptoms begin to show during the first
Autism is defined as the brain disorder that begins in early childhood and persists throughout adulthood. Autism affects three areas of human development: (1) verbal and nonverbal communication, (2) social interaction, and (3) creative or imaginative play. Autism is considered a severe disorder and developmental disability that prevents individuals from properly understanding what they see, hear and sense. The cause of autism remains unknown. Current theories indicate a problem with the function or structure of the central nervous system. This essay overviews the history of autism and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). It provides an idea of the population and causes of autism. It takes about the program services and the current operational issues related to autism.
This paper will cover many aspects of Autism Spectrum Disorder, also commonly known as ASD. It will identify reginal, national and global statistics of the occurrence of ASD, predisposing factors, usual signs and symptoms of ASD, and tests used for diagnosis. It will also analyze both medical, surgical and psychosocial aspects of the care needed by patients with ASD, interdisciplinary interventions, comorbidities commonly associated with Autism, and the prognosis of these patients. Lastly it will identify several implications for best nursing practice and interventions that may be helpful in the care of these patients.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a “developmental disability that cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges” (Autism, 2015a). The word “spectrum” refers to “a wide range of symptoms, skills and levels of impairment or disability that children with ASD can have” (Autism, 2015b). ASD is “not a single disorder, but a spectrum of closely related disorders with shared core of symptoms”. These disorders include: Autism, Asperger’s Syndrome, Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder and Rett Syndrome (Smith, 2015). One in sixty-eight children in the United States are affected by this disorder (Autism, 2015c). ASD is a little different from the many other mental disorders. It does not affect all children exactly the
Autism affects a broad range of children and can occur abruptly without warning; a healthy toddler can simply deteriorate into an autistic world and stop advancing through social and communicative milestones (Sears, 2010). Nonetheless, most infants appear to display traits of ASD from birth leading to an early diagnosis (Sears, 2010). A recent 2014 population report conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has concluded that 1 in 68 children in the United States are affected by autism (Autism speaks, 2014; Fournier, 2014). As reported by
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is known as a neurodevelopmental disorder that is capable of weakening communication, behavior and socialization. The term ASD includes three major subtypes which is Autism Spectrum Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Asperger’s Disorder. About 9.0 in 1000 children have ASD and certain types of autism might not be identified until three years of life. The probability of boys being diagnosed is higher compared to girls (Bravaccio et al. 2013). Autism is not curable, but it can be controlled using certain type of treatments as there is no specific or one treatment for autism. The question that arises for this literature review, if the treatment used for autism is effective?