Autism Spectrum Disorder
Dustin S. Staats
University of Central Oklahoma
“Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) formerly known as just Autism, is a disorder that affects about 1 in 68 children here in the United States.” (Facts about ASD) This is a pretty high prevalence and the number is continuing to rise. “Autism is a developmental disability that can cause significant impairments in behavioral, communication, and social aspects of everyday life.”(Facts about ASD). The intellectual functioning of individuals with ASD is among one of the biggest of all disabilities. The range can occur from moderate intellectual disabilities all the way up to super genius levels. However, most students function at average intelligence in all academic areas except for reading and math. The reason the name switch form Autism to ASD occurred is that now according to the DSM-V Asperger’s Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) are now disabilities that fall into the spectrum that is ASD. Diagnosis of Autism can be determined at age 2 with high reliability, but is not often discovered until the individual reaches school age and begins to fall behind their peers. It is critical that a parent goes and gets their child screened for developmental disabilities at the doctor at least every 9 months during their few first years of life, so that if they do have a disability early intervention strategies can be employed. ASD occurs in every racial and ethnic group,
Many of us have heard about Autism, also knows as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Some have a family member, a friend, or know someone who has ASD. Increasingly it is becoming a more common disability. “Autism is one of the fastest-growing developmental disorders in the U.S” (Autism Speaks). Autism has no respect for gender, race, social class and or ethnicity. “Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder that involves abnormal development and function of the brain.” (Autism Center of Excellence) People who have autism have a lot of difficulties with social skills, communication and also will develop behavior issues. These behavior problems of an individual with autism can vary at times and can go from mild to severe. According to the Autism Science Foundation it says,” Many people with the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) also have unusual ways of learning, paying attention, and reacting to different sensations. The thinking and learning abilities of people with ASD can vary—from gifted to severely challenged.” The causes and symptoms, as well as the diagnosis, and the treatments of autism vary.
According to the 2014 estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 1 in 68 children have been identified as having an autism spectrum disorder (ASD); a rate that has been steadily growing over the past 20 years (National Autism Association, 2015). Increases in reported frequencies for ASD are most likely due to a combination of factors including broader diagnostic criteria and increased awareness as well as a true increase in the number of people with ASD (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Autism it self does not effect life expectancy and, in general, people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) can expect to live as long as the non-cognitively impaired population (National Autism Association,
Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that is characterized by impaired communication (verbal and non-verbal), social, and comprehensive skills. Distinct features of individuals diagnosed with ASD are repetitive or restricted behaviors, for example daily or patterned routines: others may experience symptoms of Asperger’s syndrome, which delays cognitive/speech development: or other conditions similarly related to Down’s syndrome. ASD is often utilized as an umbrella term to encompass a wide range of genetic conditions and mental disorders; as such no two individuals diagnosed with ASD are alike. Because of this, researchers, therapists, and medical practitioners are still puzzled by the mysteries of ASD; however, many infants and toddlers are now beginning to show signs of ASD and many more are being diagnosed on the autism spectrum. With this increase, many people are beginning to understand and educate themselves on the effects of ASD and also cope with the lifestyles of autistic peoples. However, even with the increase of autism awareness and advocacy, individuals with ASD are discriminated against because of many stereotypes and societal myths that surround the disorder. One of the main sources that distribute these false stereotypes and myths is the media. In truth, many popular movies, like Rain Man and Forrest Gump, portray characters that are affected by ASD in stereotypical ways that overshadow the true complications of ASD and the
Autism Spectrum Disorder is defined as a group of complex disorders of the brain. The autism spectrum contains many other disorders within itself, and each of them have different symptoms. These disorders include autistic disorder, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, pervasive developmental disorder, and Asperger syndrome (Frequently Asked Questions, 2015). The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says that around 1 in 68 American children are on the spectrum, with the statistics in other countries being even higher. This number has increased in the last 40 years and could partly be because of the improved diagnosis and awareness, all because
Autism is known as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) this is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by reduced social interaction, verbal, and non-verbal communication and restricted and repetitive behavior. (Langone, 2002, p. 3). ASD can also be linked with many other symptoms such as intellectual disability, difficulties in motor coordination, attention, and physical health issues. Sleep and gastrointestinal disturbances, are known as the physical health issues (Langone, 2002, p. 4). Autism appears to develop and show signs in the early stages of the brain development, specifically between the ages of 2 and 3 years old.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing category in special education. It is a neurodevelopmental disorder generally diagnosed before the age of three. Its main factors include: repetitive stereotyped patterns of behavior, impairment in communication, and impairment in the area of social interaction (Heward, 1996). The DSM-IV “identifies ASD as part of a larger grouping, pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). According the DSM-IV-TR there are five subtypes of PDD: autistic disorder, Aspergcr 's syndrome (AS), childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), Rett 's syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)” (Meadan, Halle, & Ebata, 2010).
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by qualitative impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted, repetitive behavior (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013), and is associated with impairments in executive functions. Autism Spectrum Disorder is also defined as a group of disorders that impair an individual’s ability to understand and engage in the give-and-take of social relationships. (Boyd, 2015) Autism is a well-known disability in the world today. Autism statistics from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identify 1 in 68 American children on the Autism spectrum. There has been a prevalent increase in the cases of autism in the past 40 years. Over 3 million people in the United States alone are affected by autism. Government autism statistics suggest that the prevalence of autism has increased 10 to 17 percent annually in recent years. There is no established explanation for why there is such an increase in autism in the recent years, but more people being aware of it and environmental factors could be a factor to the increase. (Jenson, Steinhausen, Lauritsen. 2014)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a hereditary neurodevelopmental disorder. Like many other psychological disorders, it is commonly misunderstood in popular culture. Many allude to it casually, often equating it with crippling social awkwardness and disability when it is in fact a spectrum disorder with many degrees of severity. It is somewhat of an enigma within the scientific community as well; there are many things we do not know about ASD and there is ongoing research to learn more about the disorder. The purpose of this paper is to explain what is currently known about ASD: general facts, symptoms, prognosis, treatment, and demographics.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is the name given to describe a wide range of behaviors amongst the autistic population Children with autism are less able to interact with the world as other children do. Normally they have shortfalls in four key ranges: verbal, non-verbal correspondence, social mindfulness, and connections.” (This is one of the disorders that can either be recognized right away in a child, take a long time to diagnose, or might not even be noticeable; the lack of diagnosis can also become a negative issue in an autistic person’s life. Because this disorder is fairly common, and can be devastating should a child have ASD but remain undiagnosed, public schools should train their teachers and staff to recognize autism and its symptoms. There are many students that are being failed rather than receiving the help required to help these kids succeed. Many in the general public as well aren’t informed of what autism is, and can be judgmental towards these kids without understanding why these kids act the way they do. People need to be educated about this disorder.
I don 't think people understand how unique children with Autism are or the demands of caring for a child with Autism is. In order to grasp the effect of this disability has on a child or their family it is important to understand the characteristics of a child living with Autism.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) F84. 0 [299.00] is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder with varying degrees and manifestations that has both genetic and environmental causes, in which the symptoms are usually recognized in early childhood, which progress into adulthood. The three primary areas affected by ASD are communication, socialization, and motor behavior, and it is often associated with an intellectual disability (26). The current edition of the DSM, the DSM-5, no longer recognizes once separate autism spectrum disorders, including Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD), Asperger’s Disorder (AD), childhood disintegrative disorder, and autistic disorder. This change has created a controversial conversation. The first two journal articles are studies that were conducted that specifically explore ASD’s diagnostic place in the latest edition of the DSM, the DSM-5. All of these studies are vary based on research, data, and methods, but share similar ideals about ASD’s place in the DSM-5. The third journal article is a study on patterns of the developmental course in toddlers with ASD.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), also referred to as autism, is defined as “a serious neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs a child 's ability to communicate and interact with others. It also includes restricted repetitive behaviors, interests and activities. These issues cause significant impairment in social, occupational and other areas of functioning. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is now defined by the American Psychiatric Association 's Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a single disorder that includes disorders that were previously considered separate — autism, Asperger 's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified.” (DSM-5) Autism is
Autism Spectrum Disorder, (ASD) is a development disorder and affects the brains normal development in social and communication skills. ASD is now defined as a single disorder and includes disorders that were previously considered separate such as Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, Asperger’s Syndrome, and Persuasive Developmental Disorder not otherwise specified. There is no exact cause of ASD, but scientists believe that a variety of factors both genetic and environmental may play a role. Scientists believe that several genes are involved in the development of ASD. “There is a genetic susceptibility to ASD. This was initially determined by twin and other family studies. Although many chromosomal and gene abnormalities have been associated with symptoms of ASD, none of these are present in all affected children” (Errol, 2014). Scientists believe that some genetic problems seem to be inherited, while others happen randomly. Although genetics do not fully explain the occurrence of ASD, researchers looked at the additional environmental causes such as prenatal and perinatal factors, early toxin exposure, viral or bacterial infections, vaccinations, and autoimmune concerns. Scientists are studying how environmental factors affect certain genes. By studying how environmental factors affect genes, it provides many new ways to study how ASD develops and changes over time.
It has been observed that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have a harder time engaging in social connections, which can be initially displayed by lack of eye contact. There are many variables in severity on the autism spectrum as well as many therapies and trainings that can assist individuals with ASD to improve their skills of social communication and understanding. The purpose of this study is to have individuals with ASD view a variety of animal and human faces to determine if non-human faces, which allow for fewer social cues, allows individuals with high-functioning autism to make eye contact.
What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Austismspeaks.org states that, “ASD is a general term to define a complex brain development disorder and is a pervasive development disorder (PDD)”. Autism is a debilitating neurological handicap in children. According to the ISRN Nutrition data, approximately 1 out of 54 boys and 1 out of 252 girls were identified with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) . A child who has ASD has a difficult time adapting to their social environment. Not only does ASD have an impact on this child’s life but also their surrounding social environment such as family and friends. ASD is characterized as manifesting itself with various effects and to various degrees. It can be diagnosed from social