Bad Indians Counters The View That Native Indians Are And Have Been Gone

Decent Essays

Deborah Miranda’s entire novel Bad Indians counters the view that Native Indians are and have been gone. Throughout the novel Miranda uses tools of domination as tools of agency. The whole structure of the novel seeks to undermine the dominant discourse in society by paralleling it to the California Mission projects. This and her use of other techniques throughout the novel re-situates the history of the native community as a whole which contrasts Miranda’s feelings and views in her present state. Rather than viewing her people’s history as destroyed and irreparable, she views her people’s history as a means of reinventing themselves to something different, possibly better. She challenges the discourse that I, her people, and many others share; the effects of colonization have completely erased the native communities. First she illustrates the dominant culture that exists and then counters it by using devices like metaphor to attest to the resilience and adaptability of the natives. Finally she objectifies herself to embrace a new view of her people on a personal and social level. Miranda uses her literary work as a tool of agency particularly in A Californian Indian in the Philadelphia Airport by using allusion, metaphor, and objectification to undermine the dominant culture that the Native American peoples are passive and have disappeared. Miranda first uses allusion to illustrate how the Indians have been seen as non-existent, historically. She alludes to the Story of

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