Birth defects is a critical issue and this is reflected through the intersectionality of birth defects and several of the Millennium Development goals. Birth defects is related to goals 4,5 and 6 which are infant mortality, improving maternal health and environmental health. All of these goals are interrelated of preventing and improving birth outcomes. The web of connections birth defects has with the millennium development emphasize the importance of handling this issue.
Birth defects affects different nations across different severities. To understand the causes of birth defects its important to compare the extremes in order to better the health of these children and mothers and how to prevent birth defects. So the comparing the US …show more content…
In many cases, two or more environmental factors may be interrelated or synergistic” (Al-Hadithi , Shabila, Saleh & Al-Diwan , 2012). Although the cause of most birth defects are unknown, certain genetic and environmental factors increase the chance of birth defects developing. These factors include exposure to radiation, certain drugs, alcohol, isotretinoin, accutane, nutritional deficiencies, certain infections in the mother, injuries, and hereditary disorders. While some risks are avoidable others occur no matter how strictly a pregnant woman adheres to healthful living practices. Environmental substances that can cause birth defects are called teratogens. A teratogen is any substance that can cause or increase the chance of a birth defect. Examples include radiation (including x-rays), certain drugs, and toxins (including alcohol). Most pregnant women who are exposed to teratogens have newborns withabnormalities. Whether or not a birth defect occurs depends on when, how much, and how long the pregnant woman was exposed to the teratogen. For example, exposure to a teratogen during the time that certain parts of the brain are developing is more likely to cause a defect in those areas than exposure before or after this critical period. Many birth
Another harmful substance that would be considered a teratogen is nicotine. Smoking during pregnancy I s hazardous! It has been linked to some 115,000 miscarriages and 5,600 infant deaths a year as well as to atopic pregnancy. I’ve learned the babies born by mothers who smoke cigarettes aren’t as healthy, they don’t receive as much nutrients, less blood oxygen, and could be born under weight. Also I believe that smoking moms are more likely to suffer from apnea (breathing lapses) and are twice as likely to die of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome). Also there was a study that showed children of smokers tended to be more prone to respiratory disease.
That is almost thirty-five percent of all births. Along with all of the common issues, there are new ones arising. For example, in Afghanistan there has been an increase in sales of over-the-counter oxytocin which is an injectable hormone that can be used to stop postpartum bleeding and speed up labor but can be deadly if given incorrectly. Finally, after millions of deaths and little government action, the issue of maternal mortality is once and for all attracting attention. In July, at the G-8 summit of industrialized nations in Hokkaido, Japan, maternal deaths were acknowledged as an important obstacle to development for the first time. It paid off and there has been progress in multiple poor countries. For example, in Honduras maternal mortality rates dropped by about fifty percent after rural clinics were opened and thousands of midwives were trained. In the Indian states of Assam, Madhya Pradesh, and Orissa pregnant women were given financial assistance. In Sierra Leone there were even fines set if a woman didn’t give birth in a
Attention Getter: Grab a seat, pick up your baby catalog and start choosing. Will you go for the black hair or blonde hair? Would you prefer tall or short? Funny or clever?
When a woman finds out she is going to have a baby, it should be the most exciting times in her life. However, there may be many teratogens that interfere with the pregnancy and may cause future issues for the child. A teratogen “is any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes” (Stantrock, page 63).
Kothari, Wendt, Liggins, Overton, & Sweezy (2011) stated that despite decades of public health focus and intervention the U.S. continues to lag behind other industrialized countries, with high fetal and infant morality rated with the gap continuing to widen. Center for Disease Control & Prevention (2013) reported premature births affect nearly 500,000 babies, which 1 in every 8 in the United States. Prenatal care services have been proven beneficial and needed in assisting with improving birth outcomes. Kothari et al., (2011) reported there is evidence that have identified maternal obesity,
I chose to take a closer look at how teratogens have a great impact on the prenatal period. I am a pre-nursing student who wants to become a prenatal nurse. I believe it is imperative for me to understand the effects of all the different teratogens that expecting mothers may be exposed to, in order to prevent any complications. Moreover, teratogens can be described as agents that may cause harm or malformation to the embryo. Teratogens can be found almost everywhere and some are easier to avoid than others. I also want to identify which of and how the different theories that we studied are relevant to the impact of teratogens. I will be discussing an article from the Journal of Genetic Psychology: Research and Theory on Human Development titled
Every woman when pregnant has a 3-5% chance of having a baby born with a birth defect and these chances increase when the developing fetus/embryo is exposed to teratogens whether it’s intentional or unintentional (Bethesda (MD), 2006). Teratogens may cause severe birth defects, malformations, or terminate the pregnancy altogether (Jancárková, & Gregor, 2000). The placenta is known to be an effective barrier from any harmful pathogen that may potentially harm the fetus. The timing of exposure of any teratogen is critical to the impact of prenatal development (Bethesda (MD), 2006). The most vulnerable time of the fetus for serious damage is during early pregnancy when all the major organ and central nervous system (CNS) are
When women are pregnant, it’s important for them to make multiple changes in their daily routine and life style, in order for their baby to be healthy and develop normally. There are many soon to be mothers that unintentionally expose their fetuses to things that could potentially be hazardous. Environmental perils that alter a fetus’s development negatively are called Teratogens. Teratogens, have the power to cause chemical and physical changes in fetuses, concluding with the baby being born with disorders, disabilities, defects and a shorter life.
Ever since the dawn of time, pregnancy has been an important event in the life process of women. Some may argue that the maturation of the infant is solely their responsibility. However, the carrier’s habits can influence the baby’s development significantly. Some may leave the baby unharmed, while others might cause pregnancy issues. To further elaborate this topic, the following lines will discuss the effects that teratogens may have on the baby and his life.
According to dictionary.com a teratogen is “a drug or other substance capable of interfering with the development of a fetus, causing birth defects”. Teratogens are also substances that are found in the environment which are known to cause defects in fetal development. Teratogens are one of the leading causes of death to newborns in the nation. “There are four major factors that depend on the extent of fetal defects and those are the dosage, genetic makeup of the mother and the developing fetus, fetal age, an other negative influences on pregnancy” (Berk, 2012). Some of the common teratogens include alcohol consumption, exposure to radiation, environmental pollution, tobacco and or drug use, and certain prescription and non-