Birth Defects and the Millennum Development Goals Essay

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Birth defects is a critical issue and this is reflected through the intersectionality of birth defects and several of the Millennium Development goals. Birth defects is related to goals 4,5 and 6 which are infant mortality, improving maternal health and environmental health. All of these goals are interrelated of preventing and improving birth outcomes. The web of connections birth defects has with the millennium development emphasize the importance of handling this issue.
Birth defects affects different nations across different severities. To understand the causes of birth defects its important to compare the extremes in order to better the health of these children and mothers and how to prevent birth defects. So the comparing the US
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In many cases, two or more environmental factors may be interrelated or synergistic” (Al-Hadithi , Shabila, Saleh & Al-Diwan , 2012). Although the cause of most birth defects are unknown, certain genetic and environmental factors increase the chance of birth defects developing. These factors include exposure to radiation, certain drugs, alcohol, isotretinoin, accutane, nutritional deficiencies, certain infections in the mother, injuries, and hereditary disorders. While some risks are avoidable others occur no matter how strictly a pregnant woman adheres to healthful living practices. Environmental substances that can cause birth defects are called teratogens. A teratogen is any substance that can cause or increase the chance of a birth defect. Examples include radiation (including x-rays), certain drugs, and toxins (including alcohol). Most pregnant women who are exposed to teratogens have newborns withabnormalities. Whether or not a birth defect occurs depends on when, how much, and how long the pregnant woman was exposed to the teratogen. For example, exposure to a teratogen during the time that certain parts of the brain are developing is more likely to cause a defect in those areas than exposure before or after this critical period. Many birth

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