Bowlby 's Evolutionary Theory Of Attachment

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Bowlby defined attachment as “a lasting psychological integration bounded by human beings” (Bowlby, 1969, p.194). However, attachment can also be described as a strong, mutual, emotional connection or relationship formed between two people, mostly between infant and its caregiver. According to Macoby (1988) attachment has four key characteristics which are: proximity; where an infant always want to stay near the attached caregiver. Separation anxiety; is when the infant is distressed when separated from the caregiver. Pleasure, when the infant and the caregiver feel pleasure at reunion and lastly frequent contact; where the infant is always conscious of the caregiver and desire to be in contact with caregiver.
The attachment theory on nativist debate emphases on nature or biological factors, for example genes in developing attachment. Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment is an example that support the nativist debate which recommends that children are present on this earth as a nativist (biological) pre-planned to develop bond with other people, which enable them to survive in their environments. He was greatly prejudiced by ethological theory in overall, but particularly by Lorenz’s (1935) study of imprinting; Lorenz displayed that “attachment was innate in young ducklings. Lorenz believed the ability for animals to form an emotional bond is inborn and adaptive, so he carried out a study to found out the natural behaviours in animals particularly in greylag geese and
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