INTRODUCTION TO CARRAGEENAN
The carrageenan is from family of linear sulphate polysaccharides which is derived from seaweed (Falshaw et al., 2001). Carrageenan is a general name for polysaccharides extracted from certain kinds of red algae, a seaweed where is abound in coast of North America and Europe which are built up, in contrast to agar, from D-galactopyranose units. The name ‘Carrageenan’ is derived from the Chondrus crispus species of seaweed known as Carrageen Moss or Irish Moss in England, and Carraigin in Ireland. Carraigin has been used in Ireland since 400 AD as a gelatin and as a home remedy to cure coughs and colds. 1(a) 1(b)
Figure 1(a) and 1(b) shows Chondrus crispus seaweed native carrageenan from red seaweed algae (source www.algaebase.org)
The carrageenan is extracted from different species of marine red algae of class Rhodophyceae sp. are water-soluble, anionic and linear polysaccharides. The red seaweed is also belonging to the Gigartina, Hypnea, Eucheuma, Chondrus and Iridaea species. Water souble of carrageenan is referred to sulphate group in its structure (Relleve et al., 1999). Carrageenans occur as matrix material in numerous species of red seaweeds wherein they serve a structural function analogous to that of cellulose in land plants. Chemically they are highly sulfated galactans. Due to their half-ester sulfate moieties they are
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Most reef-building corals contain photosynthetic algae, termed zooxanthellae, that live in their tissues. The corals and algae have a mutualistic association. The coral provides the algae a environment and compound
In the Gulf of Mexico there are many different marine habitats that reside in its waters. From reef environments to floating Sargassum, a diverse variety of fishes can be found. Sargassum, is a type of brown algae that consists of two species, S. natans and S. fluitans (Rooker 2006). Sargassum has been linked to primary and secondary production and can also be a hot spot of production which would be an ideal habitat for pelagic fishes (Peres 1982). Coral reefs are a habitat that are common in the Gulf of Mexico, such as, the Flower Garden Banks (NOAA 2017). There are also many artificial reefs in the gulf that provide shelter for many fish species (Bull 1994). Of these habitats fish such as, Histrio histrio (Sargassum Fish) and Caranx crysos (Blue Runner) are abundant. H. histrio can be found hidden in the Sargassum environments while
Coral reefs exist all over the world and are generally known as being one of the most diverse, intricate and beautiful of all existing marine habitats. They have many varying structures which are developed by algae and are symbiotic with various reef building corals which are referred to as, zooxanthellae (algae). There are many other factors such as, coralline algae, sponges and other various organisms that are combined with a number of cementation processes which also contribute to reef growth, (CORAL REEFS, 2015).
Sargassum is used by larvae to travel to other locations and this allows the ocean to be more diverse. They also produce oxygen since they are photosynthetic. Algae is not a Linnaean classification but they are in kingdom Chromista and Plantae. Algae has three grouping of brown, red, and green algae. Brown algae contain chlorophyll an and c and are in kingdom Chromista. Red algae contain a pigment called phycobilins and only contain chlorophyll and are in kingdom Plantae. They are used as a food additive in ice cream and used in sushi. In their blooms they become known as the red tide and will secrete nerve toxins in the water. Green algae contain chlorophyll a and b and are in kingdom Plantae. Some of the common are dead mans finger, sea lettuce, and mermaids
Kelp forests are seen as the ultimate ecological engineer in coastal areas. They exist in marine environments spanning in southern California, Aleutian Islands, and the western north Atlantic. Light, latitude, and water temperature and nutrients all play a role in facilitating the growth of kelp forests all around the world, (Bolton). Kelp specifically dominates the shallow rocky coasts of the world‘s cold water marine habitats. Although they look as a free-growing plant, they are in fact primarily of brown algae. These structures provide food and shelter to a huge mix of biota, including crabs, sea urchins, mollusks, and other marine organisms (Steneck). The fronds, or large leaves of the kelp are the distinctive feature that can represent where a specific kelp may be found. The sizes of these organisms can range from the smallest found near California and Alaska at 5m to giant kelp up to 45m in length found on the west coasts of North and South America (Hamilton).
The red algae Polysiphonia sp. 1 does not survive well in areas along the reef where the damselfish are not present because it is often grazed on and does not survive as well as other algae. It holds a mutualistic relationship with damselfish because while these fish do graze on the algae they do not consume it completely and allow the algae to continue to grow as well. Eighteen damselfish species were used in this study in different territories throughout the Indo-West Pacific to study their relationship with the red alga. Polysiphonia sp. 1 was found in the central Indo-Pacific but was low in abundance from the Great Barrier Reef and Mauritius, and the algae were also found in territories of fishes from the African coast. Other species of the clade in this alga were found only where damselfish inhabited the area as well. The results showed that the cultivation mutualism was maintained throughout the Indo-Pacific even though variations were seen among the mode of cultivation. From this it can be gathered that damselfish in different regions have different methods of cultivating the algae and this in turn affects the algae
Chlorophyll-a is a specific form of Chlorophyll, used in oxygenic photosynthesis. Measurement and determination of this parameter are the basic analysis to evaluate the characteristics of algae blooms in many research works in the world. Unfortunately, Chlorophyll-a represents just the whole quantity of photosynthesis pigment released from all algae and micro-plants present in water, hence it cannot help to distinguish cyanobacteria existence among all living micro plants and algae in the waterbody. To be able to define and confirm the existence of Cyanobacteria species in the composition of aquatic microalgae, another pigment form, Phycocyanin, is used. Phycocyanin is the pigment, which differs cyanobacteria species from another planktonic species, and could give us a real picture of quantity of cyanobacterial genera in the water. Phycocyanin is actually a pigment-protein complex from the light-harvesting phycobiliprotein family, along with allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin. It is considered as an accessory pigment to
Through the Biology 124 Lab class on the spring 2016, my classmates, professor, and I went to Maunalua Bay for initial monitoring. I had never been there, so I surprised the difference between the real bay and what I expected. The Maunalua Bay is cleaner and more beautiful than I expected. I thought that there are more rocks, but there are more algae and sea animals than rocks. I found Asparagopsis taxiformis, Avrainvillea amadelpha, Gracilaria salicornia, shrimp, crab, and hermit crab. There are Avrainvillea amadelpha the most. I enjoyed finding many algaes and sea animals, and counting the algaes in Maunalua Bay.
Foveaux Strait contains unique biogenic habitats that supports an important commercial oyster fishery. Regular surveys recorded stock abundance of target oyster species and bycatch, however little is known about the algae community within this region (Michael et al., 2013). Algae can be an important habitat forming organism. In particular calcifying coralline algae has been demonstrated to facilitate the settlement of many invertebrate larvae, inhibit settlement and growth of other seaweed species and enhance local biodiversity (Nelson, 2009; McCoy & Kamenos, 2015). Coralline algae can survive in conditions not typical of other fleshy algae species such as low light and high sand scouring conditions within the Strait (McCoy & Kamenos, 2015).
The Great Barrier Reef has many species that depend on seagrass not only for food but for a habitat and a nursery. Most of the animals that use sea grass for a habitat like juvenile and small adult fish, use the seagrass to escape from larger predators. Species such as clams, worms, crabs, starfishes, sea cucumbers, and sea urchins, use the seagrasses for protection against strong currents. Animals like blue swimmer crabs, prawns, western rock lobster and fish use seagrass as a nursery to protect themselves from predators, they also use seagrass leaves are also an attachment for their larvae and eggs.
Dulse is a wild seaweed, also referred to as palmaria, which grows along the Pacific and Atlantic coastlines. It is a lucrative ocean plant, as when it is dried out it is known to have gone for up to $90 per pound. The newly developed strain of dulse created by the scientists at Oregon State University looks similar to red algae and is translucent. It is said to somewhat resemble translucent red lettuce and is packed with 16 percent of protein and several antioxidants when it is dried out. This particular strain apparently takes on a very strong bacon flavor when it is fried.
Astraea, also known as star coral, are typically in the shape of what can be described as boulders, domes, or cones. However, less often they can be found in the form of flat plates or thick crusts (Great Star Coral, n.d.).. These colonies of coral grow to be up to 2.5 m in diameter. The color of Astraea can vary between green, brown, gray, orange, and red; the coral is more often bright red and orange during the day due to a cyanobacterial protein, which is an essential source of nitrogen (EDGE: Coral Reef Species, 2008). They only move very slightly in an almost, floating-like manner. Astraea can be found in almost all reef environments, and it is usually the most dominant coral at depths between 12 and 30 m (Kluijver, n.d.). These are often the most sedimented areas of the reef, which is where the Astraea thrive, due to their build. The colonies have very steep sides, which allows the sediment to simply, roll off the coral. If there is still sediment that settles into the colony, the polyps will produce waves of movement to remove them. Once again, if this technique is unsuccessful, the polyps will
Red ties are marine phenomenon in which water is stained a red, brown, or yellowish color because of the temporary abundance of a particular species of pigmented dinoflagellates (these events are known as "blooms"). They also photosynthesize and it is their photosynthetic pigments that can tint the water during blooms. Dinoflagellate are common and widespread. Under appropriate environmental conditions, various species can grow very rapidly, causing red tides. Red tides occur in all marine regions with a temperate or warmer climate. The green film Dino Flatulence is often masked by red pigments that help trap light energy. Under certain conditions water is warm and rich of nutrients a dyno flagella population explosion occurs. These microorganisms
Algae is considered to be one of the stable, traditional food for people in Mexico (Spirulina platensis) and for people in Chad (Spirulina maxima) (Kuhad et al. 1997). Spirulina is one of the cheapest sources of protein and essential vitamins(Babu and Rajasekaran 1991). It is also rich in ß-carotene and dietary gamma- linolenic acid (GLA) (Chronakis and Madsen 2011). Spirulina is declared as a GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) (FDA, 2003). Spirulina is produced extensively around different parts of the world (3000 tons/year) and used in food and animal feed(Gouveia et al. 2008).