Chapter 7. 7.1 What Is Deviance?. Deviance – Behavior That

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Chapter 7 7.1 What is Deviance? Deviance – behavior that departs from societal or group norms Crime – an action or omission that constitutes an offense that may be prosecuted by the state and is punishable by law Social Control – consists of the forces and processes that encourage conformity, including: self control, informal and formal control Criminal Justice System – the organizations - police, courts, and prison officials - that respond to alleged violations of the law The Biological Context • Genetic research seeks possible links between biology and crime. • No physical traits distinguish criminals from noncriminals. • Current research puts greater emphasis on social influences. Personality Factors • Some personality traits are…show more content…
Strain Theory – Modes of Adaptation – how individuals adapt to the strain of not having access to scarce resources such as money, education, talent, ability, etc. Merton says we don’t all have the same opportunities in life The table on page 203 combines a person’s view of cultural goals and the conventional means to obtain them. It allowed Robert Merton to identify various types of deviance. Conformity – accept the means and the goal Innovation – Accepts culturally approved goals and achieves them through a disapproved way Ritualism – Abandon 's society’s goals but lives by society’s ways Retreatism – Abandon 's approved goals and the means to achieve them Rebellion – deviant adaptive behavior that is a result of rejecting the goal and the means but substituting new goals and means Deviant Subcultures- Deviance or conformity arises from the relative opportunity structure that frames a person’s life. Subcultures are characterized by: 1. Trouble 2. Toughness 3. Smartness 4. A Need for Excitement 5. A Belief in Fate 6. A desire for freedom 7.3 Defining Deviance: Symbolic-Interaction Theories Labeling Theory – is concerned with the process by which labels, such as deviant, come to be attached to specific people with specific behaviors Primary deviance – impulsive act Secondary

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