Chapter 7. 7.1 What Is Deviance?. Deviance – Behavior That

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Chapter 7
7.1 What is Deviance?
Deviance – behavior that departs from societal or group norms
Crime – an action or omission that constitutes an offense that may be prosecuted by the state and is punishable by law
Social Control – consists of the forces and processes that encourage conformity, including: self control, informal and formal control
Criminal Justice System – the organizations - police, courts, and prison officials - that respond to alleged violations of the law
The Biological Context
• Genetic research seeks possible links between biology and crime.
• No physical traits distinguish criminals from noncriminals.
• Current research puts greater emphasis on social influences.
Personality Factors
• Some personality traits are
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Strain Theory – Modes of Adaptation – how individuals adapt to the strain of not having access to scarce resources such as money, education, talent, ability, etc. Merton says we don’t all have the same opportunities in life
The table on page 203 combines a person’s view of cultural goals and the conventional means to obtain them. It allowed Robert Merton to identify various types of deviance.
Conformity – accept the means and the goal
Innovation – Accepts culturally approved goals and achieves them through a disapproved way
Ritualism – Abandon 's society’s goals but lives by society’s ways
Retreatism – Abandon 's approved goals and the means to achieve them
Rebellion – deviant adaptive behavior that is a result of rejecting the goal and the means but substituting new goals and means
Deviant Subcultures- Deviance or conformity arises from the relative opportunity structure that frames a person’s life.
Subcultures are characterized by: 1. Trouble
2. Toughness
3. Smartness
4. A Need for Excitement
5. A Belief in Fate
6. A desire for freedom
7.3 Defining Deviance: Symbolic-Interaction Theories
Labeling Theory – is concerned with the process by which labels, such as deviant, come to be attached to specific people with specific behaviors
Primary deviance – impulsive act

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