Chemistry Practical Investigation-Volumetric Analysis

Discussion:

Based on the data obtained, the precision of obtaining the data is high. This is because the data shows closeness between one another. It shows the reproducibility of a set of measured quantity. The data obtained showed three concordant titres where the titre volumes differ by less than 0.1mL from the highest to the lowest. The variability of a measurement cannot be determined from a single measurement, therefore multiple measurements (replicates) are made to check reproducibility.

Three concordant titres are needed to calculate the average titre. Concordant titre is when you are calculating the concentration of a solution by titration the expression “concordant titres” refers to are a series of successive titration with similar results. In practice this may be three successive titres with readings within a 0.10mL range which you then find the average titre value for the concentration calculation. Concordant titre is done to minimize the effect of random error and improve the precision result as precision is correspondent to the random errors of the measurement process.

Random errors are caused by factors that randomly affect measurement. Random errors are errors in measurement that lead to measured values being inconsistent. The word random indicates that they are unpredictable and have unexpected value even when the same instrument is used. If random error is present in this experiment it would be because

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